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Unit Two: The Sociology of Social Structure

Intro to Sociology
by

Kristin Palomares

on 15 September 2013

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Transcript of Unit Two: The Sociology of Social Structure

Social Structure & Interaction
Groups
Groups
Debrief
Language
Gesture Game
Break into teams of four
Create a list of gestures in the time allotment
Perform list of gestures
Mark off any gesture another team has from your list
Last team with unused gesture wins!
How difficult was it to create a list of gestures?
Why do gestures have different meanings?
How does cultural background and/or the region of the country affect gestures?
Read current event
Write reaction
The U.S. should pass a law that designates English as the official language of the nation
Debate
Symbols
1. Airport
2. Arrivals
3. Departures
4. Baggage
5. Bar
6. Bicycles
7. Bus
8. Car Rental
9. Cattle Crossing
10. Baggage Claim
11. Coffee Shop
12. Customs
13. Currency Exchange
14. Do Not Enter
15. Elevator
16. Down Escalator
17. Up Escalator
18. Farm Machinery
19. First Aid
20. Round About
21. Ground Transportation
22. Handicapped
23. Heliport
24. Hill
25. Recycle
26. Information
27. Women
28. Mail
29. Men
30. Men At Work
31. No Bicycles
32. Slippery
33. No Left Turn
34. No Parking
35. No Right Turn
36. No Smoking
37. No Trucks
38. No U-Turns
39. Parking
40. Pedestrian Crossing
41. Radiation
42. Rail
43. Restaurant
44. School
45. School Crossing
46. Shops
47. Slippery
48. Smoking
49. Fire Extinguisher
50. Stairs Down
51. Stairs Up
52. Stop Sign
53. Taxi
54. Telephone
55. Yield
56. Water
Industrial vs. Agrarian Communities
Best Song Ever
Best Item of Food Ever
Best Color Ever
Who was the leader in the group? Why?
How was the leader selected?
What were the characteristics of leadership that qualified this person?
Was there a better leader available?
Break into your "Big Mama" teams
Using only the supplies provided, create a free-standing tower within the time allotment
Team to build the tallest tower wins!
Who was the leader in the group? Why?
How was the leader selected?
What were the characteristics of leadership that qualified this person?
Was there a better leader available?
Authoritarian
Democratic
Laissez-Faire
Assigns tasks
Makes the major decisions
Pays little attention to the concerns of the followers
Praises/criticizes group members
Encourages group discussion/input
Works to build group consensus
Tries to explain why members are being rewarded/punished
Highly non-directive
Lets group members make their own decisions without much help or input
Leadership
Language
Status
Roles
Building Blocks of Social Structure
Social Interaction
The process by which people act & react in relation to others
Social Structure
Roles
Statuses
Something you hold
Status Set
All the statuses a person holds at a given time
Boy/Girl
Student
Son/Daughter
Job
Ethnicity
Friend
Athlete
Ascribed
Achieved
Examples
Definitions
Age
Skill
Relationship
Job
Gender
Family
Heritage
Race
Assigned according to standards that are beyond one's control
Acquired on the basis of some special skill, knowledge, or ability
Master Status
Changes over the course of a lifetime
Achieved or Ascribed
Plays the greatest role in shaping a person's life and determining his or her social identity
People perform a role
Behaviors + Rights + Obligations
Role Set
A number of roles attached to a single status
Interact with students
Interact with colleagues
Organize classroom
Discipline
Research information
Design lessons
Communicate with parents
Teacher
Reciprocal Roles
Corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses
Husband
Wife
Parent
Child
Coach
Athlete
Role Expectations
Role
Performance
Socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role
The actual behavior
Role Conflict
When fulfilling the expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the role expectations of another status
Being a good parent requires staying at home with your kids but being a good employee requires spending time at work
Role Strain
When a person has difficulty meeting the role expectations of a single status
A boss may experience this when trying to maintain the morale of workers while also trying to get them to work harder or longer hours
Doubt
Action Stage or Departure
Creation of a New Identity
Search for Alternatives
Role Exit
The process of disengagement from a role that is central to one's self-identity and establishment of a new role and identity
Family
Economy
Politics
Education
Religion
Social Institutions
Taboo Review
Role Set
Reciprocal Role
Role Performance
Role Expectations
Role Conflict
Role Strain
Role Set
Social Interaction
Status
Role
Social Structure
Status Set
Ascribed
Achieved
Master Status
Structure of
Groups & Societies

Groups
2+ people
Must have interaction
= shared expectations + common identity
How do groups differ?
Time
Organization
Size
Dyad
Triad
Small Group
Some meet twice while others never again
Examples?
Formal
Informal
Examples?
2 members
Each w/ direct control over existence
3 members
Takes on a life of its own
15 people max
Everyone is able to interact face-to-face
Primary
Secondary
Definition
Characteristics
Long-term
Example: Family
1st group we experience in life
They are ends in themselves
Members view each other as unique & irreplaceable
Small group who interacts over a long period of time & on a direct basis
Large & impersonal group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity
Short-term
More people
They are a means to an end
Membership is replaceable & goal oriented
May transform to a primary group with time
In-group
Out-group
A person belongs to and identifies with
Separate themselves from other groups through the use of symbols
View themselves positively
Compete with out-group to the point of conflict
A person does not belong to and does not identify with
Often defined as lower-status by an in-group
Negative self-images
Aggregate
gathered in the same place
lack of organization
lack of lasting patterns of interaction
Examples
People standing in a ticket line at the movies
People waiting to board a plane
People at a sporting event
Social Category
A means of classifying people according to a shared trait or a common status
Students
Women
Sports Teams
Read the news article
Complete the guiding questions
Prepare for a class discussion
Aggregate
Out-group
In-group
Primary group
Secondary Group
Dyad
Triad
Small Group
T.O.S.
Social Category
Group
Taboo Review
Types of Societies
Post-Modern
Post-Industrial
Industrial
Pre-Industrial
Main economic activity is food production which is carried out through the use of human and animal labor
Hunting & Gathering
Pastoral
Horticultrual
Agricultural
Daily collection of wild plants & animals
Don't build permanent villages or create a variety of artifacts
Need for mobility limits size
Statuses are relatively equal
Family is the main social unit
Relies on domesticated herd animals to meet the bulk of dietary needs
Ability to produce more food than is needed
Supported larger populations
Surplus leads to development of economic and political institutions
People plant seeds and crops rather than merely subsisting on available foods
Able to build semi-permanent villages
Economic and political institutions are more developed
Specialized roles
Draft animals and plows are used in the tilling of fields
Population can run in the millions
Larger % of population can take on specialized roles
Power becomes concentrated in individuals
Money is used as a means of exchange
Writing is developed
Shift from food production to manufactured goods
New inventions facilitate agricultural and industrial production
Leads to specialization of tasks and manufacturing of goods
Works leave their homes to work in central locations (Urbanization)
Need for specialized knowledge leads to more formalized schooling
Religion competes with science
Most statuses are achieved
The economic system is engaged primarily in the processing and control of information
Main output is services rather than manufactured goods
Large numbers become involved in occupations devoted to dissemination of ideas
Standard of living increases
Science and technology improve standard of living
Emphasis on social equality and democracy
A technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and media images
Visions of Societies
Toennies
Durkheim
Mechanical Solidarity
Organic Solidarity
The close-knit social relationships that result when a small group of people share the same values and perform the same tasks
Pre-industrialized societies
The impersonal social relationships that arise with increased job specialization
Industrialized societies
Gemeinshaft
Gesellshaft
Taboo Reivew
Pre-Industrial
Hunting & Gathering
Pastoral
Horticultural
Agricultural
Industrial
Post-Industrial
Post-Modern
Mechanical Solidarity
Organic Solidarity
Gemeinschaft
Gesellschaft
Hunting & Gathering
Pastoral
Horticultural
Agricultural
Conflict
Taboo Review
Competition
Exchange
Cooperation
Accommodation
Types of
Social Interaction

Whenever individuals, groups, or societies interact to receive a reward or a return for their actions
Reciprocity
The idea that if you do something for someone, they owe you in return
Dating, friendship, politics
Exchange Theory
People are motivated by self-interests in their interactions with other people
A state of balance between cooperation and conflict
Compromise
Truce
Mediation
Arbitration
When two parties both give up something to come to a mutual agreement
Brings about a halt to a conflict until a compromise can be reached
When a third party is called in to act as advisor and counselor in helping two parties come to an agreement
A third party makes a decision that is binding on both parties
When two or more persons or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain
The deliberate attempt to control by force, oppose, harm, or resist the will of another person
There are few, if any, rules of conduct
Four sources:
Wars
Conflict within a group
Legal disputes
Clashes over ideology
May reinforce group boundaries and strengthen loyalty
May lead to social change
Two or more people or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit many people
No group can complete its tasks or achieve its goals without cooperation
Cooperation may be used along with competition to motivate individuals to work harder
Exchange
Reciprocity
Competition
Conflict
Cooperation
Accommodation
Compromise
Truce
Mediation
Arbitration
The Structure of Formal Organizations
Formal Organization
A large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals
Schools
Businesses
Government Agencies
Youth Organizations
Political Organizations
Labor Unions
Written Rules & Regulations
Employment Based on Formal or Technical Qualifications
Ranking of Authority
Division of Labor
Bureaucracy
A ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules & procedures
Work is divided among specialists in various positions with specific duties
Clear-cut lines of responsibility
Each person is responsible to a supervisor at a higher level
Specific qualifications are given for each job
Individuals are hired on the basis of tests, education, or previous experience
Objective rules, regulations, and routine procedures specify the exact responsibilities and authority of each person on the staff
Specific Lines of Advancement
Clear cut lines of promotion
Impersonality
Duties are performed without the personal consideration of people as individuals
Review
Bureaucracies
Things get done with speed and efficiency
Large production volumes are possible
Create order by clearly defining tasks and jobs
Provides stability for the organization
Goals of individuals are lost for the sake of the self-continuation of organizations
Individuals develop bureaucratic personalities as creativity becomes stifled
The Peter Principle
Employees are often promoted beyond their level of competence
Red Tape
The knowledge or power of workers is often very limited, which can cause us to become entangled in the "red tape" of delay
Iron Law of Oligarchy
The tendency of organizations to become increasingly dominated by small groups of people who use their power to promote their own interests
Taboo Review
Formal Organization
Bureaucracy
The Peter Principle
Red Tape
Iron Law of Oligarchy
Parkinson's Law
Zimbardo's "Stanford County Prison"
First Amendment
What kinds of speech are protected & what kinds of speech are prohibited?
So what happens when speech is both political & harmful?
14 min
Abrams vs. U.S. (1919)
Defined the line between sedition & permitted speech against the government
Chaplinsky vs. New Hampshire (1942)
Defined "fighting words"
Tinker vs. Des Moines Independent Community School District (1969)
Students have the right to protest the Vietnam War by wearing black armbands to school
R.A.V. vs. Minnesota (1992)
It is okay to burn a cross if it is a general expression of political views but not if it is intended to intimidate specific individuals
Your Mission
Find a current event that involves freedom of speech
Categorize examples of prohibited public speech (reference handout)
Write down personal reaction
Speech & the First Amendment
Rural
Community
Interaction intimate
Cooperation
Openness
Informal control
Less tolerance of deviance
Ascribed Status
Little Change
Formal control
Tolerance of deviance
Achieved Status
Rapid Change
Urban
Differentness
Formal, task specific
Self-interest
Privacy
Style
Types
Instrumental
Task oriented, planning, & directing
Expressive
Consensus building & within group support
The Asch Experiment
2 min
Leadership
Always present
Product of group needs & situation
http://www.slate.com/blogs/browbeat/2013/08/09/werner_herzog_texting_while_driving_documentary_from_one_second_to_the_next.html
From One Second To The Next
Current Issues With The Evolution of Social Interaction
Parkinson's Law
Work expands to fit the time allotted for it
Full transcript