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Diversity of Life Mind Map

SBI3U - Unit Task Organizer encompassing the diversity of life
by

David Anbinder

on 22 November 2012

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Transcript of Diversity of Life Mind Map

Diversity of Life Characteristics
of living things Movement
Reproduction
Cells
Sensitivity
Metabolism
Excretion
Respiration
Growth Archae prokaryotic prokaryotic Eubacteria eukaryotic Eukaryotes single celled; lack membrane-bound organelles single celled; lack membrane-bound organelles Eubacteria Key Features Cell walls contain peptidoglycan
photosynthetic, chemotropic or heterotrophic
Asexual reproduction by binary fission
Over 10'000 described species
Variable in size and shape
Increase genetic diversity by conjugation and transformation Shapes Rod Shaped Round Spiral or corkscrew-shaped Spirillum Coccus Bacilli 1 2 3+ straight chain cluster cocci diplococci staphylococci streptococci 3+ 1 2 1 Human Influence How we are influenced by Eubacteria How we influence Eubacteria Antibiotic Resistance When we try to eliminate the bacteria, some have mutations which give them resistance to certain antibiotics. Diseases bubonib plague
gonorrhea
dysentery
anthrax
strep throat
bacterial pneumonia
meningitis
syphilis
chlamydia
trachoma (leading cause of blindness) Production of Antibiotics Gram-positive Bacteria
+ Food Production Producers + Decomposers pathogens cause Archaea Key Features Cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan
Cell walls and cell membranes have a unique structure
Extremely small
Colonize extreme environments
Live in the digestive tracts of some mammals and marine environments
Asexual reproduction Subgroups Human Influence How we are influenced by Archaea Decomposition Endosymbiosis insulin, human growth hormone Normal Flora creates Vitamin B12 and Vitamin K within humans' large intestine organic matter is converted to nutrient rich soil which can be used as fertilizer Temperature related Extreme Heat Extreme Cold Little to no Oxygen Spirilla High saline environments Halophile Methanogen methane byproduct Psychrophile Extreme Thermophile organisms which contain organelles Fungi Key Features Cell walls composed of chitin
heterotrophic
Asexual and sexual reproduction
Over 100'000 described species
Terrestrial + sessile
Cells have no chloroplasts Animalia Key Features No cell walls present
Heterotrophic
Sexual reproduction
Over 1'200'000 described species
Variable in size and shape
Live in terrestrial and aquatic environments
Multicellular Protista Key Features Cells have extremely diverse cell structure
Some have chloroplasts and cell walls
photosynthetic, heterotrophic, or both
various forms of movement
Asexual and sexual reproduction
Over 100'000 described species
Live in aquatic/moist environments Plantae Key Features Cell walls composed of cellulose
autotrophic and photosynthetic
Asexual and sexual reproduction
Over 250'000 described species
Multicellular
Possess chloroplasts Human Influence Decomposition Fermentation Fungi recycles organic materials such as rotting logs and tree leaves back into the biosphere Bread, soy sauce, blue cheese, alcohol Bacillus Streptobacillus Pyrolobus fumarii Arthrobacter chorphenolicus Methanobrevibacter Smithii Halobacterium Ascomycota useful to humans
yeast is part of this subgroup Chytridiomycota Swimming spores
Most are saprophytes
Spizellomycete shown above Phycomyces Zygomycota Bread + Fruit molds
Soil fungi
Parasites of insects Glomeromycota Gigaspora margarita Form symbiotic relationships with plant roots Basidiomycota Most are decomposers
Some form symbiotic relationships with plants Scleroderma citrinum shown below No nerves Porifera
Sessile, flagellated cells
Sponges belong to this phylum Nerves Radial Symmetry Cnidaria
Jellyfish belong to this phylum Chrysaora fuscescens shown below Bilateral symmetry
(head and tail end) Deuterostomes Protostomes anus forms before mouth mouth forms before anus spiny exoskeleton Echinodermata Internal skeleton, notochord, segmented body Chordata Arthropoda segmented bodies
jointed appendages Nematoda unsegmented cylindrical bodies
parasites of other animals Annelida segmented worms
many are marine Mollusca foot, visceral mass, mantle
complete digestive + circulatory systems Rotifera Platyhelminthes flat, unsegmented parasitic worms
no circulatory or respiratory system use cilia to direct food into their mouth
most live in freshwater
no respiratory or circulatory system Agnatha jawless fish
marine and freshwater species true vertebrae, jaws, paired appendanges Chondrichthyes cartilaginous fish
predators of other fish
internal fertilization bony skeleton Actinopterygii bony fish
external fertilization
marine and freshwater
swim bladder (controls buoyancy) two pairs of limbs Amphibia adults are tetrapods
external fertilization
breathe through lungs Mammalia Aves Reptilia terrestrial tetrapods
breathe with lungs
internal fertilization
amniotic egg tetrapods with wings
feathers
warm blooded
internal fertilization
hard-shelled amniotic egg amniotic egg feathers Hair
produces milk true placenta lays eggs pouch + short lived placenta Placental Monotreme Marsupial Human Influence Production
- paper
- wood
- clothing
- medicine Construction + urbanization
kills plants and wildlife
pollutes
threatens species Human Influence Pollution
causes extinction in some species Diseases
- Malaria
- Sleeping Sickness Photosynthesis
- produces atmospheric oxygen as a byproduct fungi-like plant-like animal-like Reproduce asexually
movement --> pseudopods and flagella
heterotrophic unicellular
asexual reproduction
limited movement
autotrophic unicellular
asexual reproduction
movement --> cilia diffusion Non-Vascualr Bryophytes
- Mosses xyloem and phoelem Vascular embryonic protection Produces seeds Conifers Flowering Gymnosperm Angiosperm Monocot
- single embryonic leaf Dicot
- two embryonic leafs Spore Producing ferns Pterophytes Lycophytes Marchantiophyta shown above club mosses volvox
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