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In the Classroom
Transcript of In the Classroom
Vygotsky states that learning is an interactive experience made by a students social environment (usually consisting of peers, family, or society) and (how they construct new knowledge) is incorporated into their personal schema.
By targeting the Zone of Proximal Development (which is the problem level a student is able to solve independently), and the potential development level (the problem level a student can find a solution with either the guidance from a tutor or with the help of a peer) an instructor can challenge students to think critically using their knowlege and their peers to find a solution to a problem beyond their personal skill level.
ZPD is based on the mental functions that have not yet matured but are in the process of maturation. A students learning goals is an great indicator of a learners ZPD.
Scaffolding with Social Learning
Scaffolding lessons for a students' zone of proximal development using social interactions will encourage students to collaborate with one another by increasing the significance their fellow peers' knowledge base is and the need to add this data to their own personal schema.
Social scaffolding provides a learner with;
-a supportive and safe learning environment;
-a stable learning foundation with which they can build personal meanings to;
-the ability to accomplish higher difficulty tasks as a team, a single learner would find impossible and;
- engages student to develop social interaction skills using communication.
Language acquisition occurs when;
1. Input is comprehensible.
-can your student participate at grade level?
2. Instruction is contextualized.
- Are you relating lesson materials to a students past and current knowledge base?
3. The environment is a low-anxiety and low stress zone for students.
- Are you providing a safe and embarrassment free atmosphere?
4. Meaningful and authentic learning experiences occurs producing full engagement opportunities.
- Why are we doing this?
- What does it mean to me?
Acquisitional Principle 3
Low Anxiety Environment
- The most common source of language anxiety is often caused by low self-esteem and a students lack of motivation. Krashen suggests that language acquisition is negativly effected when competitive situations are used in the classroom because the anxiety level increases due to the student comparing themselves to their peers or to their idealized self image.
-Anxiety can also develop from a teachers harsh manner of correcting students. Students are afraid to become embarrassed by responding incorrectly and singled out in front of their classmates. Mistakes should be gently corrected without bring the focus of their peers. The manner in which errors are corrected has a huge effect in a student classroom participation.
- Preventing Anxiety- Students are more likely to not be afraid of saying the wrong answer in front of a smaller group than a larger one. Teachers should also implement more pair work and games during lessons to decrease stress.
In the Classroom
Stephen Covey (empathetic listening opertunities)
-By building positive student to teacher and student to student relations you are facilitating a safe and comfortable atmosphere where learners can trust they will not be ridiculed or embarrassed in a social setting.
-By creating opertunities to learn about one another, and build personal connections, you are encouraging a greater sense of "we are a team and a learning community." The class will help guide each other by working together to find solutions and ensuring no one is left behind.
Examples: Small talk time, about myself presentations (visual) brain breaks as team excercise etc.
- When using hand signals as a student feedback devices during lecture an instructor can quickly correct mistakes without bringing too much attention to their peer for their wrong answer preventing student embarrassment. Other ways hand signals benefit language acquisition is by;
1. creating a universal language students can easily communicate with using visual ques and;
2. a teacher can quickly monitor for student understanding, ensuring all students can provide input easily becuase their is no language barrier.
Second Language Acquisition Theory & Learning Theory
By Ashley Stamper
Vygotsky Social Learning