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Electricity

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by

angela argeropoulos

on 27 September 2013

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Transcript of Electricity


Electricity

What is electricity
What are

electrons?

Electrons are 1 of the 3 things that an atom is made of.
What you'll learn about electricity..
- what electricity is
- electricity is the flow of moving electrons
- 3 ways to create electricity
- 3 pros and cons for each way to create electricity
- which method is best
- when electrons flow it's called an electrical current
Atoms
What are
- all matter are made up of atoms
Protons
- these are the parts of the atom that have a positive charge
- have a tiny amount of weight and are part of the nucleus
Neutrons
- neutrons are the part of the atom that have no charge
- like protons, neutrons also have a tiny amount of weight and are also part of the nucleus
- atoms are made up of...
atom
blue = protons
nucleus = the "ball" of protons and neutrons
- red = neutrons
Electrons
balls on the outside = electrons
- electrons move from atom to atom creating electricity
- they stay still
- also stay still
- electrons are the part of the atom that give a positive charge
- electrons orbit around the nucleus and create electricity by moving from atom to atom
Types of Electron flow
Direct Current
Direct current or ( DC ) is the kind of electron flow we get from
batteries
. When electrons flow in 1 direction it's called a
DIRECT CURRENT
.
- electrons are flowing one way
Alternating Current
Alternating current or ( AC ) is the kind of electron flow we get from an
outlet
. When electrons flow in 2 directions it's called a
ALTERNATING CURRENT
.
- electrons are flowing 2 ways
- you need the switches to change the direction of the electron flow
Key Point
Circuits
- a circuit is a closed loop that electrons can flow through
What's a circuit
- make sure that the circuit is complete and there aren't any gaps or else the electrons wont be able to flow
What you need to make a circuit
- a power source
( battery or generator ect. )
-
- something to use the electricity
( motor or light bulb ect. )
Then if you connect the parts correctly you have a circuit
That's What Electricity is
Three Ways To Create Electricity
Solar Power
What is it?
- solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using
photovoltaics
or (PV), or indirectly using

concentrated
solar power or (CSP).
Photovoltaics
What is photovoltaics
Photovoltaics
or (PV) convert light into electric current using the photoelectric effect.
Concentrated Solar Power
Concentrated Solar Power
Concentrated Solar Power
or (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam.
(solar panel)
Concentrated Solar Power
A common way to get solar energy is by using solar panels
- solar panels collect solar radiation from the sun and convert energy from the sun into electricity
- solar panels are made up of several individual solar cells
- when solar cells are exposed to sunlight the energy from the sun is turned into usable electrical energy
Wind Power
What is it?
- wind power is the conversion of wind energy into useful energy such as using
turbines
.
- these are used to make electrical power
- some other ways to use wind power is to use water pumps and sails
- sails catch the wind making the sail move instead of using an electric motor
-wind pumps pump water when the wind makes the blades spin
How it works
-
wind turbines
(for example)
are connected to the
electric power transmission network
- wind turbines work the opposite way a fan does, instead of using electricity to make wind
(a fan)
,
wind turbines
use wind to make electricity
- when wind blows it turns the blade of the
wind turbine
, which spins a shaft, which connects to a generator and makes electricity
Hydropower
What is it?
-
hydropower
or (water power) is power from the energy of falling or running water
How does it work
-
hydropower
works the same way as wind power
- usually
hydropower
is created by using a water mill
- when the water flows through the mill (turbine), turns a shaft making a generator work, making electricty
- dams are also a good way to collect
hydropower
- dams block water in rivers and the force of the water hitting the dam creates hydropower
Pros and Cons of each way to create electricity
Pros
and

Cons
for
Solar Power
Pros
Cons
- renewable
(as long as the sun is

shinning you'll

always be able to use it)
- clean
(no need for fossil fuels)
- usable all over
(solar energy provides electricity to places in remote places and places off the grid
- eventually becomes free
(once you buy a solar panel you get free electricity in due time)
- maintenance free
( solar panels only need to be cleaned once in a while and they don't have moving parts making them not as likely to break or fall apart
- collecting electricity all the time
(besides at night, you waste a lot of electricity that you've collected because during the day you can use natural night a not electricity so the solar panels are useless)
- space required
(to have a solar panel you have to have a lot of space to put it)
- expensive
(even though in due time you'll have free electricity, solar panels are very expensive)
Pros
and
Cons
of Wind Power
Pros
-
clean energy
(no mining or burning)
-
renewable
(sustainable)
-
cost
(decrease over time)
-
location
(can be used almost anywhere)
-
free
(free power after payed off)
Cons
-
unreliable

(it's not always windy so you can't get wind power all the time)
-
expensive
(wind turbine
s
and windmills are very expensive to buy)
-
eyesores
(some people don't like the way they look and they look weird in the middle of the city)
-
noise
(wind turbines are noisy
-

temperature
(at night wind turbines can effect the temperature)
Pros
and
Cons
of
Hydropower
Pros
Cons
-
environmentally

friendly
(uses water which is a natural resource)
-
reliable
(water is usually available unlike wind)
-
efficient
(once dams are built hydropower is very efficient)
-
low maintenance, cheap
(once dams are built)
-
multi-usage
(the pool of water that forms behind dam can be used for swimming, tourism, fishing, boating and more)
-
no waste
( no disposal issues)
-
damage
(dams can make a big impact on where it's built)
-
high upfront cost
(expensive to build)
-
negative impact in time of droughts
(even though droughts don't happen everywhere in times of drought dams can't produce electricity)
Best Method
- i think the best method out of the ways to create electricity is
SOLAR POWER
- i think this because...
- there are more pros than cons
- the sun is a great resource
- the sun is reliable except for at night and when it's cloudy
- low maintnence
- more common than hydro and wind power
- takes up the least amount of space (put solar panels on the roof)
That's all about Electricity
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