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Transcript of Curriculum Compacting
Similarities and Differences of Research
What is compacting?
* A technique used to modify the regular curriculum to meet the needs of gifted students in the regular education classroom.
-mastering curriculum faster
Models of Compacting
Schoolwide Enrichment Triad Model (SEM) Study
-Joseph Renzulli headed the study.
-Model is effective in serving high ability students in diverse
-Acceleration is strongly supported in mathematics more than
-Found positive growth for students involved in SEMs, even those
not identified for gifted services.
*Due to using revolving door identification.
Who is compacting for?
How is it implemented?
Quote to remember:
“If they fell in love with 'learning' instead of 'earning' there was no way possible that they couldn’t succeed in school and in life.”
- high ability students
-who are underachieving due to lack of motivation
-students who demonstrate proficiency on curricular objectives prior to teaching
* Eliminates curricular material that students have already mastered and replaces it with more appropriate learning activities.
Why Compact the Curriculum?
-helps gifted students pursue accelerated
and enrichment opportunities
-an alternative to grade skipping that may lead to negative social development
-it motivates underachieving students to complete assignments so they can work on assignments that they find interesting
1. Have a good understanding of the content.
2. Define the objectives or outcomes of the unit.
3. Identify the students who have already mastered
4. Use replacement enrichment or acceleration
activities decided by both the teacher and the
- Student has overall subject or grade level strengths so the teacher should compact the curriculum for a unit up to a year.
-Student has strengths in topics, a few lesson objectives, or units so the compacting will be shorter.
Stanley Model of Talent Identification Development
SMPY-The study of mathematical precious youth
The Renzulli School wide Enrichment Triad Model (SEM)
Enrichment Triad Model offers three types of enrichment experiences
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
The Purdue Three-strategies Enrichment Model for Elementary Gifted Learners (PACE)
The Maker Matrix
The Parallel Curriculum Model (PCM) (Tomlinson)
The Schlichter Models for Talents Unlimited Inc.
Sternberg's Triarchic Componential Model
Van-Tassel-Baska's Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM)
Professor returning to fourth grade Jim Delisle:
-Compact without piles of paperwork
-Could independent studies be an everyday occurrence?
-Compacting curriculum is less a procedure than it is a mindset.
-Compacting has very little to do with forms and very much to do with philosophy.
-Listened to student to decide if he could move past.
-Just let compacting occur naturally.
-Teachers have done it for generations without a name.
-“If they fell in love with 'learning' instead of 'earning' there was no way possible that they couldn’t succeed in school and in life.” ~Jim Delisle
All research studies were conclusive that curriculum compacting encourages positive attitudes of school by students and parents, motivates and enriches high learners without inhibiting core curriculum, and helps all students in reaching individual growth.
-Grades 2-5 40-65% of content is new.
-By 8th grade only 30% of content is new.
- Most often compacted:
#2 Language Arts
#3 Science ad Social Studies
- Median of 40% curriculum is compacted.
-textbook and syllabi are uniform throughout the country
-most Chinese classrooms = learn the same content and no compacting occurs.
-only have gifted programs in test-taking or lesson-learning
-pressure of the Chinese Examination System.
-students and teachers must focus on test scores
Cannot waste time on developing students’ interest. Even if an individual has mastered the content area and surpassed the rest of the class, he or she must repeat the content area again and again to try to get higher scores on the national tests.
-Way of China Compacting = 3+X
-3 is for 3 main subjects Chinese, Mathematics and English
-X stands for all the other subjects-physics, chemistry, biology, geography, history which are not on national exams
*Not highly sucessful.
-Gives teachers more one on one time with students who need additional help.
-Contracts that state at any time a student can return to the regular class before taking the compacting test.
-Popularity spreads and encourages those afraid of failing who are high achieving to give it a try.
-Some lower level students experience success when they had an interest in it.
-Return to regular class if score less than 80% on compacting test.
-Lack of sufficient teacher preparation to initiate
pre-assessment and differentiation.
-Limited time during the school day and year to prepare supplemental lessons.
-Financial needs for purchasing enrichment material.
-Some districts do not allow teachers to use above grade level material to teach students.
The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented Study
-self-selected study topics
SEM model in China 2004
When teachers eliminated as much as 50% of curriculum, no differences were observed in post-test achievement scores (meaning students did not fall behind in required knowledge) in reading, math computation, social studies, and spelling. Science and math students actually scored significantly higher on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills than their peers in the control group (used test above grade
level to prevent ceilings).
95% of teachers in the study were able to identify high-ability students in their classrooms and document individual strengths. This indicates that teachers are able to do the identifying. Past research has stated otherwise.
Replacement strategies often did not reflect the types of advanced content appropriate for high-ability students. Thus staff development is needed to use appropriately challenging replacement strategies.
"Staff development efforts are not influenced by teacher's beliefs and attitudes: Rather, attitudes and beliefs are a result of teachers' implementation of new practices and the observation of changes in students learning outcomes"
After reviewing the research the educators have concluded that they will implement curriculum compacting as a strategy of differentiation.
When compacting for multiple students the educators will most likely use the same compacting model on all students.
The use of the Compactor would depend on the number of students and whether the compacting is for a whole content area or a single unit of study.
The educators are interested in using replacement strategies as opposed to always using enrichment.
Compact by Period
Compact by Topic