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Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition
Transcript of Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition
directly for two specific reasons Each organ has specialized food-processing functions
digestive system consists of alimentary canal and various accessory glands
peristalsis pushes food along
sphincters regulate the passage of material between specialized chambers of the canal
accessory glands include salivary glands, the pancreas, the liver, and the gallbladder Animal Nutrition Bulk Feeders The Need to Feed Dietary Categories Feeding Mechanisms Energy Budget Glucose Regulation Caloric Imbalance Obesity & Evolution Essential Nutrients Intro Essential Amino Acids Essential Fatty Acids Vitamins Minerals Stages of Food Processing Ingestion Digestion Absorption Elimination Digestive Compartments The Digestive System The Oral Cavity, Pharymx, & Esophagus The Stomach The Large Intestine The Small Intestine Evolutionary Adaptations Dental Adaptations Stomach Adaptations Symbiotic Adaptations General Information food enters oral cavity and triggers saliva, which contains mucin
tongue makes food into a bolus and pushes it into the pharynx Epiglottis Glottis Eusophagus stores food
secretes gastric juice
pepsin begins hydrolysis of proteins Windpipe meal is churned into acid chyme Cardiac Orifice Pyloric Sphincter Enzymatic hydrolysis begins in the duodenum
acid chyme from stomach mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and gland cells of the intestinal wall The Act of Eating First step polymers are too big to go through membranes and enter the animal cells the macromolecules that make up an animal are not the same as the macromolecules of their food. Second Stage Process of breaking down food into molecules that are small enough for the body to absorb Cleaves macromolecules into their component monomers polymers-> monomers Once broken down into the component monomers, the animal can then use these monomers to make its own molecules have fuel for ATP production polysaccharides are split into simple sugars fats are digested to glycerol and fatty acids proteins are split into amino acids nucleic acids are cleaved into nucleotides Enzymatic Hydrolysis splitting process that cleaves polymers into monomers a variety of hydrolytic enzymes catalyze the digestion of every macromolecule found in food Preceded by fragmentation of food chewing-by breaking food into smaller pieces, which increases the surface area that is available to digestive juices that have hydrolytic enzymes third stage the animal cells take up small molecules like amino acids and simple sugars from the digestive compartment last step undigested material passes out of the digestive compartment (poop) intracellular extracellular begins after a cell engulfs food:
-phagocytosis newly formed food vacuoles fuse with lysosomes (which have hydrolytic enzymes) allows digestion to happen safely within a compartment encosed in a membrane The break down of food OUTSIDE cells occurs within compartments that are continuous with the outside of the animal's body
- allows an animal to take in larger prey that can be digested intracellularly animals with simple bodies have a digestive sac with ONE simple opening gastrovascular cavity functions with digestion and distribution of nutrients through the body In most animals, however, there is a digestive tube that extends from the mouth and the anus (complete digestive tract or alimentary canal) food moves along the canal in a single direction Dentition animal's assortment of teeth. example of STRUCTURAL VARIATION that affects diet -In this example, the evolutionary adaptation of teeth for processing different types of food is an important explanation as to why a species (omnivorous) is successful. Basically, all this is saying is that evolutionary adaptations that specify and affect certain body parts associated with digesting food can determine whether the species is successful or not. The length of the vertebrate digestive system also coorelates with diet. herbivores and omnivores have longer alimentary canals compared to carnivores this is because vegetation is harder to digest compared to meat because of the cell walls in vegetation a longer tract allows more time for digestion and more surface area for absorption of nutrients Herbivores have a nutritional challenge this is because the chemical energy in their diets are present in cellulose of of plant walls, but the problem is that the animals do not produce enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose this problem is solved by microorganisms such as bacteria and protists. -usually exist in fermentation chambers of the alimentary canal -have the enzymes to digest cellulose into simple sugars so that the animal can absorb the food -also they digest minerals to make many nutrients that animal needs each epithelial cell of a villus has many microscopic appendages called microvilli, which increase the nutrient absorption Ruminant Digestion the stomach of a ruminant has four chambers circular folds in the lining bear small finger-like projections called villi herbivores: deer cattle and sheep because of the microorganisms within the chambers, the diets of the ruminants absorb richer nutrients than originally within the grass.
Penetrating the core of each villus is a net of capillaries and a lacteal Herbivores Omnivores Carnivores eat mainly autotrophs feed on animals and plant or algae matter Villi eat other animals epithelial cell *understand that organisms are opportunistic feeders deptite their feeding category Regardless of what the organism eats, each organism must consume foods that satisfy their nutritional needs 1. fuel (chemical energy) for all cellular work of the body 2. raw materials animals use in biosynthesis (carbon skeletons to make many of their own molecules) 3. essential nutrients that the organism doesnt make itself (vitamins) jejunum and ileum then function in the absorption of nutrients and water Enzymatic digestion is completed as peralsis moves the mixture of chyme and and digestive juices along the small intestine the liver produces bile, which is stored in the gallbladder until needed (the colon) connected to small intestine at T-shaped junstion (a muscular valve) Substrate Feeders Fluid Feeders sift small food particles from the water cecum has fingerlike extension called the appendix major function of colon is to recover water that has entered the alimentary canal feces:waste of the digestive tract the humpback whale uses comblike plates to strain small invertebrates and fish from enormous amounts of water rectum:terminal portion of the colon one arm of the T is the cecum Suspension Feeders this caterpillar eats through an oak leaf suck nutrient-fluid from a living host mosquito penetrates the skin of the human host, sucking nutrient-rich blood excess calories are used in biosynthesis
are also stored in energy depots eat relatively large pieces of food; specalized have adaptations python is about to ingest a gazelle it captured muscle cells undernourishment liver cells overnourishment when the diet is chronically deficient in calories when glycogen depots are full, body stores excess as fat when fewer calories are taken in than are expended, fuel is taken out of depots glycogen storage and fat are used up
body begins breaking down its own proteins for fuel muscles decrease in size brain becomes protein deficient excess food intake (obesity) excess body fat is beneficial in many other species human body hoards fat when someone consumes an excess of carbs, the body tends to increase its rate of carbohdyrate oxidation fat cells from the abs; the strands of the connective tissue are holding the fat-storing cells in place must be obtained from food in prefabricated form a diet that doesn't satisfy the body's needs, result in protein deficiency meaning that tasks cannot be completed because of the lack of proteins animal's diet must supply all raw materials needed for biosynthesis ready-made animals can fabricate a variety of organic molecules when given a source of organic carbon and a source of organic nitrogen Most essential amino acids are found in meat eggs cheese essential nutrients: materials that must be obtained in the preassembled form because the animal's cells cannot make them form any raw material malnourished: describes an animal whose diet is missing one or more essential nutrients essential amino acids
essential fatty acids
unsaturated ex) linoleic acid required amounts are relatively small 13 have been identified water-soluble: include the B-complex, which consists of several componds that function as coenzymes fat-soluble: vitamins A, D, E, and K excesses are secreted in urine vitamin A: vitamin D: vitamin E: vitamin K: vertebrates require reletively large quantities of calcium and phosphorus other examples: magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium live on their food source the break down of food INSIDE cells Chapter 41: fat in diet has greater effect on weight gain had genes promoting the storage of high energy molecules were more likely to survive humans crave fatty foods because hunter-gatherer ancestors who