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Parts of the Cell

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by

Kennedy Mohs

on 8 January 2013

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Transcript of Parts of the Cell

Cell Wall
(Prokaryotes + Plant Cells) Structure: in prokaryotes, composed
of proteins and covered with polysaccharides;
in plants, composed of cellulose; rigid

Function: protects and supports
the cell, acts as a pressure vessel
to prevent over-expansion

In the factory: the security system,
preventing unwanted materials from
entering the cell Plasma (Cell) Membrane
(Animal Cells) Structure: a phospholipid bilayer
w/ embedded proteins

Function: regulates what enters
and exits the cell, recognizes other
cells

In the factory: the gate, monitors
what is delivered to/shipped out of
the factory The Cell is Like a Factory The cell can be compared to a factory. Both have several important components used for the production of necessary materials. The factory and the cell are well-oiled machines that require the cooperation of many different factors. Nucleus Structure: round, relatively large
"kernel"-shaped organelle
sometimes held in place by
cytoplasmic filaments

Function: directs the cell,
manages its activities, contains
its genetic information

In the factory: the CEO or boss of
the company, controls the factory's
other areas Nucleolus Structure: located in the nuclear matrix,
can occupy as much as 25% of the
cell's nucleus

Function: produces ribosomes

In the factory: the copy machine,
responsible for ribosomal RNA
synthesis that creates the factory's
workers (ribosomes) Centrioles Structure: cylindrical, composed
of microtubules in a 9 + 3 pattern

Function: assists in cell division,
organizes the spindle apparatus

In the factory: revenue from the success
of the product produced, allows the factory
to expand A Comparison of Cell Organelles
to Components of a Factory Parts of the Cell Ribosomes cont. Golgi Apparatus Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Mitochondria Chloroplasts (Plant Cells) Lysosomes Peroxisomes Vacuoles Cytoskeleton Cell Models Prokaryotic Cell Plant Cell Animal Cell Structure: consist of RNA and
proteins, bound to the ER

Function: responsible for
protein production in the
cell

In the factory: the machinery,
create the usable product Structure: lipid bilayer
membrane, crystalloid core

Function: break down chains
of long fatty acids and are
responsible for the biosynthesis
of plasmalogens

In the factory: furnace or generator -
creates energy from breaking down
materials Structure: formed by stacks
of membrane-bound structures (cisternae) w/ special Golgi enzymes

Function: modifies, sorts, and packages macromolecules for
cell secretion

In the factory: the packaging and shipping system Structure: a system of
membranous tubes and sacs,
studded with ribosomes
which give it a rough appearance

Function: involved with the synthesis
of proteins and is the membrane
factory of the cell

In the factory: the conveyor belt Structure: a system of
membranous tubes and sacs,
tubular in form and lacking
ribosomes

Function: synthesizes lipids,
regulates carbohydrates, regulates
Ca concentration and necessary
for detox of cells

In the factory: the conveyor belt Structure: double membrane
composed of phospholipid
bilayers and proteins

Function: creates ATP, a site of
oxidative metabolism

In the factory: the power plant
that supplies the factory with
energy Structure: flat disk contained in an
envelope of phospholipid membranes,
contain chlorophyll and stroma

Functions: conducts photosynthesis,
and lipid synthesis in some algae

In the factory: workers, providing the
energy needed for factory production Structure: membrane-bound vesicles, contain hydrolytic digestive enzymes

Function: used for digestion, remove excess or worn out organelles

In the factory: the maintenance crew, cleaning up waste and
unnecessary materials Structure: made up of a network of protein filaments

Function: provides the cell with structure and shape, facilitates cell movement

In the factory: the supporting beams of the building Communicating Junctions Structure: membrane-bound vesicles

Function: used in intercellular secretion, excretion, storage, and digestion

In the factory: the storage room,
for materials not yet being used Gap Junctions Plasmodesmata composed of connexons
form when two cells' connexons align perfectly
allow small substances (simple sugars, amino acids, etc.) to be exchanged between cells since rigid cell walls separate plant cells, they can only communicate through holes in these walls
the connections formed in these gaps are plasmodesmata
plant cells connected with their neighbors with these junctions
lined with plasma membrane and contain a central tubule connecting the cells' ERs
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