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Samuel de Champlain
Transcript of Samuel de Champlain
1598 (part 1):
Who Was Samuel de Champlain?
A Presentation By Benjamin Wolf
Samuel de Champlain was a French explorer and navigator who was born in France in 1567. He is well known as ''The Father of New France'' because he made the first permanent settlement in Canada and for going on many voyages in the Quebec area. Champlain is very important to Canadian history because he made very accurate maps of the coast and even made many good relationships with the local native tribes. So lets get started and learn about Samuel de Champlain!!!
Champlain occumpanies his uncle in transporting Spanish soldiers from France to Spain.
1598 (part 2):
-Travels on the St.Julien for three years exploring, Mexico, Panama and Puerto Rico.
-When Champlain got back to France he told the King that there might be a passage connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
-This was valuable information because just like Cartier, Champlain wanted to find a route to Orient.
Samuel de Champlain was born in 1567 in Hiers-Brouage France. He was baptised on August 13,1574. His mother and father Antoine Champlain and Morguerite Le Roy were both excellent mariners (a person who helps in the navigation of a ship). Since Champlain's father was an experienced sea captain, he taught Samuel about navigation and geography. But before Champlain could set out on any voyages, he studied things like cartography, mathematics, and astronomy. One of his first voyages was in 1598, when he sailed on the St.Julien for 3 years exploring Puerto Rico, Panama, and the Mexico area. The young Champlain also created detailed maps, notes and illustrated reports on his travels, making King Henry send Champlain on other trips in the near future.
1601-1603 (Part 1)
-Champlain becomes a geographer for King Henry (the study of the physical features of the earth and its climate/atmosphere)
-Before he set off for Canada, Champlain went to multiple french ports and learned about the North America form fishermen that normally traveled the coastal regions of Nantucket and Newfoundland.
Map of East Coast Where Champlain Traveled/Researched about.
1603 (Part 2)
-After Champlain had done his research about the coastal regions (the place he wanted to go), he set off for Canada as an observer for a fur trading expedition.
-The expedition was led by Champlain's friend Du Pont. He was the one who taught Champlain about getting around in North America and about the natives in the St.Lawernce area.
March 15, 1603
-The Bonne-Renommee (The Good Fame) lands of Tadoussac in March of 1603. Champlain was excited to see all of the things that Jacques Cartier talked about sixty years earlier. While on his voyage, Champlain made detailed maps of the St.Lawernce.
Tadoussac is at the red dot
where Champlain landed
-When Champlain got back to France in September of 1603, he published an account of his travels. The document was called: Des Sauvges ou voyage de Samuel de Champlain, de Brouages faite en la France nouvelle l'an 1603, or concerning the travels of Samuel de Champlain of Brouages, made in France in the year 1603. In it, Champlain talked about his positive interactions with the Chief of Montagnais and some Algonquins at Tadoussac.
Spring 1604 (Part 2)
-Pierre asked Champlain to find a suitable settlement area. After observing different sites in the Bay of Fundy, Champlain picked St.Criox Island as their colony for the winter.
Spring 1604 ( Part 1)
A Map of Champlain's Birthplace in Heirs-Brouage France
Samuel de Champlain's Boating License.
-In Champlains second voyage to Canada, he focuses on an area south of the St.Lawernce. This trip, just like the last was an exploratory one, so it would last several years.
-The expedition was led by Pierre Dugua de Mons, a French explorer, merchant and colonizer. He had been given a fur trading monopoly in New France by the King. A monopoly is an exclusive privilege to carry on a business or service by the government in a specific place.
A Bust of Pierre Dugua de Mons in Quebec City
-But St.Croix turned out to be a brutal place, so they soon relocated to a place called Port Royal.
-Samuel de Champlain explores the east coast of North America, going as far as Cape Cod looking for some sort of permanent settlement.
-But the Nauset people, sometimes called the Cape Cod Indians attack Champlain and his group, discouraging them of making a settlement.
-Champlain uses Port Royal as his base while he explores the Atlantic coast. Dugua had already left the base in 1605 because he knew that the monopoly was at risk.
-Two years later after Dugua left, the king took away the monopoly because of pressure from merchants for free trade. This then led to the abandonment of the settlement.
''The Father of New France'' (Part 1)
-Samuel de Champlain is best known as the ''Father of New France'' for his extensive work on trying to found a permanent settlement in Canada.
-Pierre Dugua de Mons ( a french explorer/merchant) told Champlain that he should set up a colony in the St.Lawernce area.
-So in the spring of 1608, Champlain departed from Honfleur France on a ship called the Don-de-Dieu (The Gift of God) along with another called the Levrier (Hunt Dog) which was commanded by Champlain's friend Du Pont.
A painting of the Don-de-Dieu arriving on the shores of Quebec in 1608
''The Father of New France'' (Part 2)
-Two months later, they arrived at Tadoussac, a place on the lower part of the St.Lawernce. After getting in small boats, they traveled down the ''Big River'' since the current of the Saguenay was to strong.
-Eventually, Champlain landed at the ''Point of Quebec'' where they built 3 large wooden buildings called ''Habitation''. Each one had a security fence around it and a moat 12 feet wide.
A picture of the ''Habitation'' drawn by Samuel de Champlain
In the years to come (1620's), these structures were used as trading posts by french traders, or Campagine des Merchands
This was the basis of Quebec, and without Champlain's amazing enthusiasm for a settlement, none of it may have ever happened.
Involvement/Wars With the Natives
-In the summer of 1609, Champlain wanted to improve his relationships with local native tribes. He made alliances with the Huron, Algonquin, Montagnais, and Etchemin, who all lived in the St.Lawernce area.
-The tribes (specifically the Algoquins) wanted Champlain to help them fight against the Iroqouis. So Champlain traveled south with 300 natives and 9 Frenchmen.
-While they were down there, Champlain explored the Riviere des Iroqouis or the Richelieu River. At the end of the river, there was this large lake that Champlain mapped and called ''Lake Champlain''.
A map of the ''Richelieu River'' that leads up to Lake Champlain
Involvement/Wars With the Natives (Part 2)
-But since that they had no encounters with the Iroqouis, many people turned back leaving them with only 60 natives and 2 Frenchmen.
-On July 29th, Champlain and his group unexpectedly came across a tribe of Iroqouis. The battle began two days later when guides pointed out three Iroqouis Chiefs to Samuel. Champlain pulled out his Arquebus (an early type of rifle used in the 15th-17th century) and killed 2 of the chiefs.
-The other Chief was soon killed by one of Champlains men. Instantly, all of the Iroqouis fled leaving the victory to them. But sadly, this engagement led to a bad connection between the two peoples for the rest of the century.
Here are some journal entries that Champlain might of written before and after the battle
A Picture that Champlian drew depicting the battle near
Lake Champlain in the Summer of 1609
-Samuel de Champlain married 12 year old Helene Boulle on December 30th 1610. She was the daughter of Nicolas Boulle. He was someone who made many decisions in the royal court.
-When Helene was told that she had to marry Champlain, she was initially upset. But after a while the relationship started to improve. Sadly, the couple didn't have any children of their own, but in the winter of 1627-1628, Champlain adopted three Montagnais girls. He named them Hope, Faith and Charity.
1) On March 15 1610, Champlain arrives in New France and wants to find the ''northern sea''. Champlain was probably talking about the Hudson Bay. It was in june when Champlain met with Tessouat (an Algonquin chief).
2) Champlain told him that he would build them a fort in the populated Lachine Rapids since the original place had poor soil. In August, Champlain arrived back on Saint-Malo France and wrote about his travels from 1604-1612. He also wrote about journey up the Ottawa River and made another map of New France.
3) Thoughout the rest of Champlain's voyages, he continued to make good impressions on the natives and explored other places like Lake Nipissing and Lake Huron ( known back then as ''Lac Attigoautau''.
Map of Lake Huron and Lake Nipissing
Illness and Death
1) Samuel de Champlain suffered a stroke in October of 1635. He later died on December 25, 1635. In Champlains will, he left all of his french property to his wife Helene Boulle. Champlain also left his life savings or inheritance to the Catholic Missionaries and to different people in the Quebec colonies.
2) Before Champlain's remains were put in a standalone chapel, he was temporarily buried in a church. But in 1640, a large fire destroyed the small building. Champlain's exact burial place is still unknown, but research that was done in the 1800's suggests that he is somewhere near the Notre-Dame de Quebec Cathedral.
The Notre-Dame de Quebec Cathedral
Many places that Champlain explored have memorials to remember the great ''Father of New France''. These places include New York, Quebec, Vermont and Acadia. Some of the memorials include:
The Marriott Chateau Champlain
Hotel in Montreal Quebec
The Champlain Bridge
in Montreal that Crosses the St.Lawernce
Samuel de Champlain Provincial
in Ontario Canada.
A Statue of Samuel de Champlain
in Ottawa Ontario
A Shopping Mall in New Brunswick
Statue of Champlain and guide
in Isle La Motte Vermont
To sum up, Samuel de Champlain was a smart and courageous person. Not only did he establish colonies for people to live in, but it was the start of something new and rewarding. Without Champlains spectacular thinking, Canada may have never exsited as it does today. So I say this ''Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a flower''(Steve Jobs).