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Genetic Engineering - Food Sources

TCH301 Group 2 Teachback
by

David W

on 6 February 2014

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Transcript of Genetic Engineering - Food Sources

Genetic Engineering
&
Our Food Our Bodies Experts: G.M. food can have harmful effects on the body


Some believe that these foods could lead to the development of diseases that are immune to antibiotics and other common medications


Medical evidence that G.M. foods can cause allergies in the body -- if our bodies are reacting in this way... why? There is risk that genetically engineered organisms introduced to the natural environment could remove balance the ecosystem.


For example, a new plant form could "escape" into the wild and destroy other plant life, while at the same time, having no natural population control (pests or disease). Pest Concerns Third-world countries will become even more dependent on other countries


Most of the food industry in America does *NOT* tell consumers that the foods they are eating are G.E.

Most European countries have banned G.E. foods because there are no long-term studies on the effects, ecological or biological Consumerism Did You Know? There are G.E. food sources where we have spliced animal genes into plants?

... and vice-versa?

This technology is still in its infancy: we have no idea what the long-term effects are?

Big Agriculture is dominating the market and suing traditional farmers? Meats Other Uses Pharmaceuticals: chickens that produce substances that can be used in modern drugs

Goats can also produce drugs in their milk

Creation of hypo-allergenic dogs and cats that provide immunity for humans

Growing organs in similar animals (pigs) for human transplantation The Debate Ensure that food is organic

Avoiding meats/farms that feed with genetically modified food

No sugar!

No artificial sugars, either!

Support companies that do not utilize these sources for their products Positives include the renewable food source that can provide immunity or increased resistance to diseases which not only threaten the animal, but the human as well

Negatives can include unforseen side effects created through the modification of the animal's genetic code and through the mixing and matching of genes among a wide variety of different animals

Another avenue: specialization of animals which may not provide actual, tangible human benefit (pets) Did you know...

A cow's digestive system depends on grass for long term survival, but they are instead given corn

Corn is cheaper, and it makes the cow's meat more tasty (more fat in the meat)

Corn poisons he cow's rumen (a digestive organ) and causes the liver to abcess Scary Facts Since corn grows so fast and is so profitable, many farmers have switched to corn

This also so causes the ground to loose its nutritiants

G.M. corn can cross-pollinate with natural corn -- this can cause mutations that might harm both natural and G.M. variants Thanks to the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which mandated that all gasoline be mixed with ethonal. Now farmers are gaurenteed a profit.

the goverment also spends 20 billon a year in Farm Subsdies that pay back farmers for lost money at market.

Laws are also passed to prevent cheaper foriegn compeditors from stealing buisness from the US based farmers. Genetic Modification The European Union bans many U.S. corn imports

Specificly, they have a ban on Monsanto's MON-810 corn

The U.S. is currently lobbying the EU to lift the ban

The U.S. is also claiming that this ban violates World Trade Organization policy Effects on land The percent of G.M. corn grown in the US is 86%

It is modified with new geans to resist glyphosate herbicides and insects

Comparatively, only 26% of the world's corn is modified

Hhybrid plants have been cultivated, but lose much of their beneficial traits Bans Salmon Soy or milk from cows injected with GMO rbST Growth Hormone
Corn syrup with GMO's Alfalfa Company AquaBounty Technologies proposed gene "AquAdvantage" to enable salmon to grow twice as quickly.
Would be the first genetically modified animal approved for direct consumption.
Food and Drug Administration concluded that it is still safe to eat and posed no threat to the environment, but there is no final decision for approval on this yet.
Labeling- AquaBounty president says the salmon do not need to be labeled because there are no biological differences, but the danger in direct consumption of modified salmon is causing state bills to be enacted requiring labels. Baby food Genetically Modified animals can be used commercially as of 2008, including in food

The animal must produce drugs, serve as a model for disease, produce a product, or have improved food use

Making food crops that are both more abundant and resistant to disease

Examples include salmon that grow more quickly/efficiently or animals that grow bigger than their "normal" size

Animals typically have better yields of eggs, milk, etc. "Oh no! What can I do?" Pest Concerns Think about a rogue strain of wheat that we later find causes disease in humans. We don't want it anymore, but it is now in the wild and grows over other plants, including food crops.

This can be a serious problem:

Companies have already developed herbicide-resistant plants and they are in widespread use by American agriculture Monsanto and the Soybean In 1995, Monsanto introduced a G.M. variety of soybean, known as Roundup Ready Soybeans

These soybeans are made to be resistant to Roundup brand herbicides, allowing larger doses to be sprayed upon the crops

By 1997 they made up about 8% of the market

In 2010 they made up 93% of the market Monsanto and the Soybean Because it owns the intellectual property rights on the seeds, Monsanto has filed lawsuits against traditional farmers, putting them out of business.

Why, you ask? Because traditional farmers have refused to use Monsanto seed, but pollen from neighboring farms has contaminated their fields.

Monsanto then demands royalties and fines from the farmers, which number in the millions of dollars. The farmers' only alternative is lengthy court battles, and none have won one of those to date... Terms Used G.M. Genetically Modified
G.E. Genetically Engineered
GMO Genetically Modified Organism References Websites:

natural-gran.com/vegetable-plants-and-seeds-terminator.html
crops.org/publications/cs/abstracts/35/5/CS0350051451
ecosalon.com/soy-powerful-how-monsanto-pushes-genetically-modified-soybeans-on-unwilling-consumers/
actionbioscience.org/biotech/glenn.html






Print:

The Ethics of Genetic Engineering, David Koepsell, J.D., Ph.D.,
The Ethics Behind Eugenics & Genetic Engineering Savannah Gonzales Monsanto and the Soybean Zachary Sparks Meats & Animals David Wells Paul Mitchell What is Genetic Engineering? Maverik Bishop Cows & Corn Jordan Barrett Other Products Corn as a Crop Kendal Cormany Monsanto and the Soybean You're familiar with Roundup, right?

Herbicide franchise
Very effective at what it does
Banned in many countries
(Canada and Denmark, among them)
Used extensively in agriculture

Are you aware that the key ingredient is a chemical named "Glyphosate?"

Glyphosate was found to kill human placental cells at concentrations below that recommended for agricultural use

Roundup was found to be lethal at even lower concentrates The case of Monsanto is a complicated one, with lawsuits stretching back to the 1970s for its involvement with Agent Orange.

I would conclude that Monsanto embodies...

Nietzsche - Monsanto seems to have an Ubermensch view on the world; they know how nature and agriculture should work, and expect everyone else to fall in-line

Machiavelli - ends justifies the means, world-wide monopoly attemps show a "might makes right" mentality Ethics & Tech. Monsanto and the Soybean To prevent customers from using seeds from their crops the following season, Monsanto has used G.E. to create "Terminators."

Terminator seeds grow plants that are sterile. This has many implications, given the widespread use of Monsanto seed, and has ignited controversy in many countries.

In 1999 Monsanto pledged not to commercialize Terminator technology, yet their vice president has declared to the press that Monsanto intends to commercialize it as a product. Farmers using Monsanto seed are not permitted to store seeds from their crops for the next season - they will also be sued.

This has put most "seed shakers" out of business.

Seed shakers are seed cleaning machines used to separate seeds and store them for later use

Sued because they "... encourage the violation of Monsanto's intellectual property." Monsanto and the Soybean Changes from Nature Studies have shown that bugs that are not targeted by the new genes could still be effected

It is published that monarch caterpillars are thretened by the re-tooled plant

There is a Sweet variety that adds more sweet flavors to the corn The technology itself is neither ethical or unethical - the whole thing is amoral.

But in this case, I believe the application of this technology by a world-leader in industry, is a very unethical thing.



In a lawsuit against Monsanto, an Alambaman jury (after finding Mansanto guilty) accused the company of behavior "so outrageous in character and extreme in degree as to go beyond all possible bounds of decency so as to be regarded as atrocious and utterly intolerable in civilized society."

I think that about sums it up... Ethics & Tech. The rapidly increasing demand for livestock products, known as the "Livestock Revolution" has created opportunities for improving the welfare of at least some of the nearly one billion poor people who depend on livestock for their livelihoods. The Good News Scary Facts Did you know...

Because of this, cows must be given antibiotics when in order to survive long enough to be slaughtered

The practice is considered acceptable because we are able to grow more fat cows In animal reproduction, genetics and breeding, artificial insemination (AI) has perhaps been the most widely applied animal biotechnology, particularly in combination with cryopreservation, allowing significant genetic improvement for productivity, as well as the global dissemination of selected male germplasm. Biotechnology Complementary technologies such as the monitoring of reproductive hormones, oestrus synchronization and semen sexing can improve the efficiency of AI. Embryo transfer provides the same opportunities for females, albeit on a much smaller scale and at a much greater price. Molecular DNA markers can also be used for genetic improvement, through marker-assisted selection using markers located beside genes of interest, as well as to characterize and conserve animal genetic resources. Use of most molecular marker systems depends on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is an important technique for amplifying specific DNA sequences. Biotechnology Humans have been practicing biotechnology with livestock for a long time now (an estimation of about 10,000 years) in the form of breeding certain traits into domesticated creatures. Biotechnology Ethics Dontologically, using any process to make animals tastier, more profitable, and so on would be unethical if that process caused suffering on the part of the animal. So feeding cows corn would be unethical because it essentially poisons them and requires they be stuck with needles and injected with antibiotics in order to survive their own diets.

Usinng hedons and dolors (utilitarianism), the argument would be that the suffering of the cows does not generate enough dolors to counter the hedons produced by the tastier meat, lower costs to the consumer, and higher profits to the seller. Therefore, from this point of view, it would be ethical. Definition Genetic Engineering is the scientific alteration of the structure of genetic material in a living organism. Four Types Somatic Gene Therapy
Disease treatment w/out affecting future generations

Somatic Genetic Enhancement
Improves functiong of the individual

Germ-line Gene Therapy
Aims to prevent disease, but involves inheritable genes

Germ-line Genetic Enhancement
Aims to improve the functioning of future generations Genetic Engineering is more precise and efficient than traditional biotechnology methods.


It is understood that genetic engineering is the amplification of older methods of altering nature. It is the blending of selective breeding and technology that deals with DNA. DNA is the hereditary material of life. Effectiveness Transgenes A transgenic organism consists of altered genes and is done by isolating a gene to function in a host organisms in which it is combined with different genes and then deposited into an organism. A Chimera is a name for a transgenic organism that comes though a method that is not selective breeding. Transgenes are not normally found in the species.


Transgenic Categories:
plant-animal-human
animal-animal
animal-human Examples Golden rice has elevated levels of vitamin A

Mildew resistant sunflowers

Cotton resistant to insect damage

Human Protein inserted into fruits create vaccines against diseases such as hepatitis, cholera, and diarrhea

Goat eggs are inserted with silk-protein from spiders the goats produce proteins made of spider thread in their milk. This material can be used for a numerous amount of things because it is very strong material Technology The better humans understand the genetic structure of organisms the quality and quantity of products will be affected. These affects are seen beneficial in the short and intermediate term, but remain largely unknown in the long term. This is observed in traditional biotechnologies such as:
Contraceptives and antibiotics have affected not only human evolution, but the ecology of the planet.

An argument against genetic engineering is based on the extent of the effect evolution altering substances have had. Technology The essence of technology is to alter the human relationships to nature

Technology such as clothing, medicine, agriculture, and weaponry are an expression of the human defiance of natural order. The things that encompass society result from human intentionality and consciousness.

The embracing of technologies has allowed man to distinguish itself from nature. GE consequences cannot be predicted because of the complexity of genomes.

Evolution as we know it is unpredictable.
Epigenetic (study of traits) and generational unpredictability.
Explore all possible effects on the biosphere.

The relationship between genes and phenotypes is beyond current human understanding.
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) can colonize and multiply. GMOs will produce metabolic products, enzymes, and toxins as long as they are metabolically active and once established cannot be extinguished without disrupting the ecosystem. Pig organs used in humans known as xenotransplantation.

Growing human tissue on a structure to be used in all sorts of medical situations.

Therapeutic proteins including monoclonal antibodies which come from milk of transgenic cows, mice, rabbits, and goats for use in the treatment of cancer and arthritis. Examples •Genetically Modified Organisms •Is it safe? Allergens are a primary concern. GMO's can introduce known or unknown allergens that can cause allergic reactions when consumed by children. Alfalfa is grown to make hay which is fed to dairy cows and horses.
U.S. Approves of planting genetically modified alfalfa
20+ million acres are grown in the US
Forth largest crop by acreage - valued $8 billion
Only 1 percent is organic.
Gene that gives immunity to herbicide Roundup - allows farmers to spray it to kill weeds without affecting the crop. Uses of Canola: oil in lamps, cooking oil, lubricant in steam powered machines and engines (ships)
Gene: Herbicide resistance - genetic material from common soil bacteria. Plant is modified, oil is not.
93% of canola is genetically altered in US Canola Cash Money Genetically modified livestock may escape and reproduce in the wilderness, thus altering the ecosystem.

There is concern about the ethical treatment of the animals: feeding the cows corn, which is poisonous to them, rather than grass or hay.

Public discomfort with new sources of food.
Example: story of the mutant KFC chicklens The Bad Moos G.E. vs Biotech G.E. can be violation of dignity; dignity has been a profound topic in philosophy.

Kant says: "value can be replaced by something else which is equivalent... above all value, and therefore admits no equivalent has dignity."

Diminishing the capacity for others to attain their potential is an offense to human dignity.

Nature is indifferent to human dignity and humans are dignified by altering nature to improve lives. Roles & Ethics Keep in Mind The impact of genetic engineering on socialized nations and non socialized nations.

Two classes may evolve into the natural and enhanced.

precise and efficient biotechnology method such as genetic engineering could reduce the amount of genetic and ecological diversity.

Eugenics has allowed for detrimental human hubris.

Genetic Engineering for health purposes in contrast to aesthetics. G.E. Uses GE technology can alleviate illness, clean up environment, and increase crop yields.
Examples:

First patent: bacterium Burkholderia cepacia -- used to clean up oil spills

Bacteria that produces insulin for diabetes

Onco mouse -- used in cancer research

GE foods provide drought, pest, and freeze resistant crops which reduces the need for fertilizers and pesticides and is the only way for humans to feed the growing population on the globe. Just & Equitable Technology and science impacts humanity and the biosphere for good and bad.

G.E. will change the distribution of goods.

Great disparities of social classes because of wealth and power are not desirable, yet genetic engineering allows for drastic changes that need to be well understood. Overview 1. What is Genetic Engineering?
2. Monsanto and the Soybean
3. Corn as a Crop
4. Cows & Corn
5. Livestock & Meats
6. Other Crops G.E. vs Biotech The difference being that older biotechnologies did not utilize technological tools at the level of DNA. The accuracy of making changes at the genetic level could unleash unexpected effects to both the individual and future generations.

GE can be used to better understanding the correlations between DNA and disease and allow for the ability to evaluate ones DNA to determine the likely hood of a disease. Genetic Engineering is a more accurate type of selective breeding. Selective breeding is applied for the purpose of expressing desirable traits and suppressing undesirable traits over time.

This occasionally results in unexpected infirmities.

The difference between selective breeding and genetic engineering is qualitative when considering the accuracy of genetic engineering technology Roles & Ethics What prevents further segregation between the rich and poor?

What prevents us from harming our gene pool?

What prevents us from harming ecosystems?

At What point is it acceptable to select against certain traits?

What rights do parents have in regards to the genetic alteration of a child?

What limits are permitted to be established to ensure the protection of children and stability of society? Rhetoric How much better could our lives be if we focused and altered evolution?

Are we meshing the lines between species haphazardly?

What happens when we significantly alter portions of our species from what is considered human?

Assess health risks, transmission of zoonotic disease such as: encephalopathy which is mad cow disease, or retroviruses. Could we potentially create diseases for which we have no treatment?

Could there be a super-human and slave race? Rhetoric Stanford's first president in 1902 commented that the strong are sent to battle while the weak and unfit reproduce in order to cultivate society.

Human Betterment Foundation in 1915 advocated compulsory sterilization in California

Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis is a highly accurate method to determine babt gender and it also screens for debilitating genetics.

Originally sex detection and selection was used to screen for venereal diseases; A deaf lesbian couple in 2002 wanted to have a deaf child through sperm selection. Eugenics Eugenics Eugenics social philosophy which weeds out the people with inferior traits in order to pass on superior traits to subsequent generations.

Examples of American Eugenics Movements:
Oneida Community founded in 1848 by John Humphrey Noyes which asserted biological perfectionism by creating offspring with the best qualities.

The state of Indiana in 1907 passed compulsory sterilization which allowed mentally ill people and minority women to be sterilized against their will. A 1927 Supreme Court case ruled in favor of forced sterilization. Just & Equitable In the advent of enhancements including athletic ability, intelligence, musical ability, physical attractiveness humans are open to a possible future by which underclass people that normally move up to a position of status may to be common because of unfair competition from people whos parents can afford genetic enhancement. A Team Awesome Production Design By David Wells david@outriderit.com
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