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Education in the 1920s
Transcript of Education in the 1920s
Urban Americans were open to change and scientific discovery.
Supported formal education
Mental ability was more important than muscular strength.
Rural Americans endorsed traditional religious and scientific views.
Formal education was not a vital asset for life (only expected their children to learn the basics of readin', 'riting', and 'rithmetic: the "Three R's").
Physical strength and knowledge of crops and animals was more important than "book learning". Urban Urban vs. Rural Rural Migration From Rural Areas to Cities Caused: Increase in school enrollment
Increase in teachers and salaries
More school days per year
Need for skilled workers in business and industry Throughout the 1920s, there were a few new methods used to help out with the development of higher learning. Two important ones were known as the Dalton Plan and the Contract Plan. Together, these plans encouraged students to be responsible and stressed how important individuality was.
The Dalton Plan was a method that required students to work on durable projects individually in a “laboratory setting”. This plan was created by Helen Parkhurst and her goal for this plan was to get students’ interest and to enforce independence amongst students in classrooms.
The Contract Plan was an agreement that had to be made between a teacher and a student in written form in order for any student to complete an individualized assignment. The ‘contract’ brought forward specific requirements that had to be completed in order for the student to earn a correct letter grade. Innovations Dalton Plan Contract Plan Key Figures John Dewey American Philosopher
Made the most contributions to the development of education
Established Progressive Education which proposed that the measure of a student should not be based on test scores, but on his/her experiences and individuality
Sought to promote emotional, artistic, and creative aspects of human development through education
Believed in human nature, art, ethics, and logic
Strongly believed that schools and civil societies were two main subjects that needed to be reconstructed Innovations and Key Figures Prior to the 1920s, high schools were solely offered to college bound students. However, during the 1920s, schools not only welcomed the college bounds, but provided courses for vocational training for those going into industrial fields or seeking industrial jobs after graduation.
More subjects such as engineering, business, and teacher training were also offered. Widespread education, moreover, increased literacy.
The separate but equal policy further discriminated African Americans and left them to fend for themselves when it came to providing for the students to attend schools.
The teaching of evolution was banned in schools. Evolution went against the bible's version of the creation of man (Scopes Trial).
Increase in education led to the increase in sports such as swimming, tennis, baseball, and basketball which became a part of college sports programs.
Taxes to support schools doubled between 1913 and 1920; taxes doubled again in 1926 Social & Personal Effect The baby boom that erupted after WWI led to higher student attendance (from 1 million in 1914 to 4 million by 1926)
The number of High School graduates doubled in the 1920s
For the first time in American history, more people lived in urban than in rural areas. When the Stock Market crashed, everyone was hard hit
Falling tax revenues caused schools to shorten school year; some schools even closed completely leaving more than 300,000 students out of school.
Pay for school teachers plummeted
Lower wages were made for African American teachers
Instruction in various fields, such as art, linguistics, and music was eliminated
Students had to bring in their own lunches or starved throughout the day
Both black and white children were forced to give up their dreams of one day going to college (even though going to college was more unlikely for blacks from the start)
Funding for African American schools was denied
Children had to take on jobs at sweatshops, for instance, where they faced unsanitary conditions. Stock Market Crash Great Depression s Education Bounces Back Persistence of educators, through development of Educational leagues and unions, led to public awareness and funding from individuals who were not badly affected by the Great Depression.
High School enrollment rose. College enrollment rose higher than ever before
FDR's New Deal features the three R's (Relief, Recovery, and Reform)
Gave federal aid to youth
Gave federal aid to education
Helped construct 70% of new schools
Prevented schools closing by allotting emergency funds to pay teachers
Outlawed child labor
Work Progress Administration (WPA)
made nursery schools of access to workers
provided free lunches to students
National Youth Administration (NYA)
Gave two million low income students the opportunity to finish their education
Funded 2.6 million jobs to students who had already graduated
Civilian Conservation Corps
provided temporary training and work relief for young males Correlation to the Performing Arts Correlation to the Performing Arts TV & Film Orchestra In the 1920’s, people from rural areas felt as though it was only necessary to learn the three r’s being readin', 'ritin', and 'rithmetics. They were not intrigued or really saw the importance in anything but these basic necessities. With my Performing Art I am allowed to do these three things to the best of my ability as well as perform and recite what we have learned. In addition to orchestra, the 1920’s also helped with other performing arts such as Television and Film (which I also participate in). By opening up to new concepts and methods we incorporate the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic, while also working individually in lab-like settings (Dalton's Plan) to produce projects involving shoots, cameras, and green screens. Education during the 1920s set the tone to how the school system should be run (excluding the practice of segregation)
Proposed by John Dewey, learning should be fun along with fundamental.
Students who learned in urbanized communities during the 1920s were more exposed to various disciplines and fields of education; one of which was History. In my Musical Theater class, we are learning about the origination of musicals in theater and the history behind the art. We learned about key figures, such as Ethel Merman, Ethel Waters, and George Gershwin, to name a few, show business and life during WWI, during the Great Depression, and far beyond.
If it wasn't for improvements in the education system and the increase and migration of people into urban areas during the 1920s, we would only be limited to the basics of "readin', 'ritin', and 'rithmetics" Italian educator and philosopher
Famous for Montessori Method of education which stressed hands-on individualized learning in a child-friendly setting
Worked with mentally disabled children by getting them involved in physical activities to train their senses
For children who were unfortunate enough to attend regular public schools, Montessori was there to help them achieve as well
It was the little things she did that helped the most Maria Montessori