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01 Earliest Americans

Early American Cultures
by

Thaddeus Schwartz

on 18 July 2013

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Transcript of 01 Earliest Americans

40,000 Years Ago
People had never set foot in
North & South America
This movement from one area to another is called "
Migration.
"
They were "
Hunter-Gathers
" because they hunted and gathered food and did not grow what they ate.
An Ice Age freezes large amounts of ocean water into ice.
Growing glaciers cause sea levels to drop 300' lower than present levels...
Paleo-Indians:
Ancient people from Asia that crossed this bridge and entered what is now North America.
They were likely pursuing animals across the "bridge."
(Climate and landscape around living things)
The Environment then warmed and the
glaciers melted, cutting off the
Paleo-Indians.
The varied environments of the new world influenced the creation of various
CULTURES.
A set of common values and traditions, including language, government, religion, and economy.
We will look at several cultures next...
Land is exposed by lower sea level.
The exposed land connected the two sides of what was the Bering strait and created the
"Bering Land Bridge."
(ancient Indian travelers of the land bridge).
Central America
Mother Culture
Venerated the Jaguar
Sculpted Large Stone Heads
Between 40-12K Years Ago
Yucatan - Central America
Pyramid & Temple Builders
Mathematics - Calendar
The Maya
Central Mexico
Great Warriors
Capital - Tenochtitlan
Human Sacrifice
Early 1500's most powerful Mesoamerican state
The Aztec
Present day Mexico City
Ecuador to Chile at peak
Cuzco capital city
12 Million strong
Highway builders
Records via knotted strings
The Inca
Native Americans:
Less populated than Meso and South American cultures... Hunter-gatherers until 5000 BC... then some agriculture.
Anasazi
- early southwest culture
Pueblos
- above ground homes of heavy clay
Kivas
- underground ceremony chambers
Irrigation
to deal with dry conditions
Hopi, Zuni
Anasazi/Southwest
(adobe)
Olmec
Maya
Aztec
Inca
Southwest
Totem Poles
Ancestor & Animal Spirits
Social importance by giving away belongings
North
Adapted to cold
Igloos, huts, multifamily, partially underground
Fishing/Hunting
Northwest
California area
Hunter-gatherers
Acorns for flour, roots, trapping
Family groups of 30-500
West
Nomadic hunters (Blackfoot)
Bison, deer, elk
Teepees
Some were farmers (Pawnee)
Corn, beans, squash
Matrilineal (Pawnee)
Great Plains
Farming & Trading Societies
Burial Mounds
Hopewell Culture
Mississipian
Cahokia - 30K residents
Mound Builders
Northeast
Farming villages
Village Councils
Cherokee eventually develop a written language
Southeast
North: Inuit & Aleut
p
Northwest: Tlingit
West: Hupa
Sweat House
Great Plains: Blackfoot, Pawnee
Mound Builders: Hopewell, Mississippian
100+ temples and burial mounds
Near present day St. Louis
100' high and covering 16 acres
1000 BCE - 700 BCE
follows Hopewell, disappears by 1700's
Southeast: Cherokee, Seminole, Creek
Confederation alliance
Northeast: Iroquois League
Cayuga, Mowhawk, Onedia, Onondaga, Seneca
Farmers, traders, hunters, warriors
People of the Longhouse
Wampum Belts for trade and recording treaties and stories
Influenced Founding Fathers
(8-10 families per)
Shared Beliefs:
Land was NOT owned in the sense Europeans own land
Belief in spirits and a great spirit
Mesoamerica:
Southern part of Mexico and Northern Central America
EARLIEST AMERICANS
Full transcript