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AP Human Geography Unit Five ~Agriculture~ [FIN]

BY: me, josh, ed, sam and pj

Mentai Mills

on 7 May 2015

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Transcript of AP Human Geography Unit Five ~Agriculture~ [FIN]

The Green Revolution
AP Human Geography: Unit V
Josh Kim, Mihiro Mills, Edmund Hsu, Samuel Kuo, P.J. Bliley
The Second Agricultural Revolution
The First Agricultural Revolution
Responses to Modern Revolutions
Gene Revolution
Women's Roles in Agriculture
Types of Agriculture
AP Human Geography: Unit V
North America
South America
Shifting Cultivation
Pastoral Nomadism
Intensive Subsistence
Mixed Crop and Livestock
Livestock Farming
Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming
The von Thünen Model
A model of agricultural land use that illustrates the relationship between the cost of land and transportation costs involved in getting a product to market
Fruit Farming
Grain & Crops
Cattle & Ranching
The Modern Von Thünen Model
A. Theoretical Model
B. Actuality
Food refrigeration
Improved transport
Regional/Global corporate decisions
Government policies (surplus: paying subsidizes, giving to foreign countries)
Multi-use crops (ex. maize)
Forest industry is not as large
Closer to market
Higher rent cost
Lower transportation cost

Further from market
Lower rent cost
Higher transportation cost

Peanut leaves genetically modified with the
genes from
Bacillus thuringiensis
, bestowing them with insecticidal properties.

Normal peanut leaves afflicted by European Corn Borer Larvae
Became widely apparent after the second agricultural revolution
Involves heavy use of machinery
Used for sale mostly off farm, not for farmer consumption
Lower number of farmers
Farm size extremely large
Connects to the outside economy
Generally indicates non -mechanized agriculture
Used to grow food for one's self and family
Prominant in most LDCs and rural regions
Has a higher concentration of farmers in the given region
Surplus may be sold
A form of subsistence agriculture
Involves slash-and-burn agriculture
Farmers grow crops for a few years before leaving it to fallow
Crops vary per region
A form of subsistence agriculture
Involves the movement of animals milk and skin
Diet is mostly consisting of grain
Size of Herd
A form of subsistence agriculture
Involves hard manual labor
More Prevalent in LDCs
Double Cropping
Crop Rotation
Intensive vs. Extensive Agriculture
Less Physical Labor
More Machinery
More Prevalent in MDCs
A form of Commercial agriculture
Year round agriculture
Most money is derived from the animal
Crop Rotation
Cereal Grain
A form of commercial agriculture
Main agricultural output of Europe and North America
Cincinnati, OH
Sheep under Coconut Trees, Sri Lanka
Somewhere in Africa
Southeast Asia
Congo Basin
Chittacong, Bangladesh
U.S. Wheat Belt
Most usually commercial
Winter Wheat, Spring Wheat
Types of Grain
Inspired the reaper (McCormick) and the combine
Indonesian Rice Fields
Alberta, Canada
Cattle Drive US circa 1902
Mostly a Commercial form of agriculture
U.S. Cattle Ranching
Fixed Location Ranching
Now a meat processing industry
Mediterranean (duh)
Commercial vs. Subsistence varies
Climate includes moderate winters with hot and dry summers
Mainly uses agriculture to generate profit
Grown for human consumption
Growing of fruits, vegetables, and tree crops
A form of Commercial Farming
Truck Farming
Highly mechanized
Grow foods developed societies demand
Specialty Farming
Truck Farm
Farmer's market stall
A form of Commercial Agriculture
Large farms consisting of 1 or more crops
Include many specialty crops
Generally owned by external people/corporations
Highly intensive
Super intensive plantation
A series of technological advancements and changes in agricultural practices that occurred in the late 1940s through the 1960s.
Characterized by:
Increase of irrigation infrastructure,
Development of higher yielding varieties of crops
Increased usage of pesticides, synthetic fertilizers and hybridized seeds.
Was initially a plan to lessen famine in LDCs by increasing their food production

Norman Borlaug - father of the Green Revolution
The utilization of genetic engineering in the production of food.

DNA modification allows for greater control over select traits, more so than selective breeding and mutation breeding.

GM crops have been engineered for resistance to pathogens, pests, and herbicides
In this model, the market is...
the center
the only market
a center that producers will compete for
The most productive activities will compete for and locate near the central market. Those who aren't as productive, must settle further away.
City is located centrally in an "isolated state"
Said state is surrounded by wilderness
Land is uniformly flat, without mountains
Soil quality and climate are consistent
No infrastructures
Farmers use rationalized thinking processes
Extremely perishable
Being so near the central market, dairy production often has high rent, but also low transportation costs.
Extremely Perishable
Fruits are perishable and require fast transport. Fruit farming land is usually located near central markets.
Grains are less perishable
Labor Extensive (if machinery is available)
Grains and crops are located near the outskirts of the von Thünen model. They require larger areas of land and are less perishable, relative to dairies and fruits. Rent costs are lower, transportation costs are higher.
Wood from forest-harvesting are not as perishable
Labor Intensive
Forestry is mostly located closer to the central market because of its bulky products. Transportation of lumber is hard to come by. Thus, the transportation cost will be higher, if it were even further away.
Cattle require lots of space
Labor Extensive
Cattle and ranching is usually located in the outermost ring of the model. Rent cost is low, and the owners get a lot of land for their cattle, in return.

Labor force - all the members of a particular organization or population, who are able to work, viewed collectively.
Gender Role- the public image of being male or female that a person presents to others.
Market access- the process to ensure that all appropriate patients who would benefit, get rapid and maintained access to the brand, at the right price.

Assigning contributions to agricultural outputs by gender is problematic because in most agricultural households both men and women are involved in crop production.

Women play a significant role in the agricultural labor force and in agricultural activities. Women approximately produce 60-80 percent of food
In Rajasthan, India, girls between 14 and 19 years of age contribute up to 60 percent of the total time spent on agriculture by their age group

This graph shows the different countries and the different percent of economically active agriculture. Each part of the world is different, some are more active than others, and some have none.
The transition of humans from nomadic hunting and gathering to sedentary agricultural production of domesticated plants and animals

Occurred between 10,000 to 8,000 BC

First recorded area with association to the Revolution was in the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East.
China and South America also showed characteristics of the revolution

Products of the Revolution
-Domestication of animals
sheep, goats, and pigs
- Seed and vegetative agriculture
- Tools for farming
~The British Agricultural Revolution~
The increase in agricultural production in England due to increases in labor and land productivity.

The 2nd agricultural revolution took place in England between 1750 and 1880

Products of the revolution
-Farming methods such as crop rotation
- Transportation infrastructures
- Increased intensive farming
- Land conversion and land drains
Industrial Revolution
2nd Agricultural Revolution
SO... YEAH...
Josh Kim
Mihiro Mills
Edmund Hsu
P.J. Bliley
Samuel Kuo
The Green Revolution
Reactions and effects of the Green Revolution have mostly been positive.
Norman Borlaug has been credited as "agriculture's greatest spokesperson" and "The Man Who Saved A Billion Lives"
The world's production of major cereal grains has nearly quadrupled due to the Green Revolution
However, criticisms include:
Heavy environmental impacts brought on by the increased use of pesticides, chemicals and irrigation
Health hazards with poor use of chemicals and pesticides
Decreased agricultural biodiversity due to reliance on a few high yielding varieties of crops

Gene Revolution
Humanity's response to Genetically Modified crops and livestock is very divided.

Scientists have reached a general consensus that GM foods provide no greater threat than normal food, unless intentionally made to be lethal

People dislike GM crops because they believe that they are generally unhealthy compared to traditionally grown crops and livestock, and may cause health complications.
Having to use GM seeds increases and LDC's dependency on large multinational corporations
This guy's pretty cool
Full transcript