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Presidents of the 1920s
Transcript of Presidents of the 1920s
* Slashed taxes
*Laissez-fair attitude toward economy/business
* Established a Federal budget system (Bureau of the Budget)
* Restored the high protective tariff
* Imposed tight limitations upon immigration
* Fought the KKK-Advocated civil rights for African Americans
* Signed the first child welfare program in the United States
*Advocated for a strong economy independed of foriegn influence His term in office: Teapot Dome Scandal: bribery that took place in 1920-1923. Albert B. Fall leased Navy petroleum reserves at Teapot Dome and two other locations to private oil companies at low rates without competitive bidding In office Scandals "The country needs less government in business, more business in government." He installed the first radio in the White House while in office
*He was the first president that women voted for; women liked him because he was charming
*First "modern campaign" in which hollywood stars were used
*First to get 60% popular vote "I have no trouble with my enemies. I can take care of my enemies all right. But my damn friends, my god-damned friends, White, they're the ones who keep me walking the floor nights! "-Remark to William Alan White "Return to Normalcy" About Harding Bad marriage, early carrier as a journalist 28th Lieutenant Governor of Ohio U.S. Senator from Ohio, Chairman of Senate Committee on Philippines Before Presidency: *Was elected republican canidate as a compromise; he "looked like a president" 1st's Personality:
Didn't believe he was fit to be president
Appointed his friends and people he felt he owed to office
Was known as a "ladies man",
Extroverted, and a gambler/drinker
Spent a lot of time during presidency relaxing & having fun "I am not fit for this office and should never have been here" Quotes: “America's present need is not heroics but healing; not nostrums but normalcy; not revolution but restoration.” “Let the black man vote when he is fit to vote; prohibit the white man voting when he is unfit to vote.” “Our most dangerous tendency is to expect too much from the government and at the same time do too little for it.” Why did Americans revert to isolationsim after the war?
What did all the 1920's presidents have in common, and how did their policies/ideas reflect the sentiment of the time period? How did they contrast the sentiment of the time?
What parts of the presidencies led to the Great Depression?
Why would Americans want presidents with traditional ideas of what was normal during a time period of great change? Harding grew ill on a trip to San Francisco and died shortly after, August 2, 1923. He never had to see the reprecussions of the scandals. Many people mourned his death. Harding's Death: New President: Harding was succeeded as President by Vice President Calvin Coolidge, who was sworn in while vacationing at Plymouth Notch, Vermont, by his father. What the 1920's presidents tell us about the 1920's All were: Conservative Republican
For restricting immigration
Pro-Business and against a lot of government interference
Popular among public when elected, won by landslides "America First" August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929 Personality: *Quite, negative, remote, yet accesible
"Distinguished for character more than for heroic achievement," -Alfred E. Smith
*Very conservative- Wanted to preserve the old moral and economic principles amid the current material prosperity
*It is said his political success comes from doing nothing "Both his dry Yankee wit and his frugality with words became legendary. His wife, Grace Goodhue Coolidge, recounted that a young woman sitting next to Coolidge at a dinner party confided to him she had bet she could get at least three words of conversation from him. Without looking at her he quietly retorted, "You lose." "He once explained to Bernard Baruch why he often sat silently through interviews: "Well, Baruch, many times I say only 'yes' or 'no' to people. Even that is too much. It winds them up for twenty minutes more." A man of few words "Maintain the Status Quo" Policies In his Inaugural he asserted that the country had achieved "a state of contentment seldom before seen," and pledged himself to maintain the status quo -twice vetoed farm relief bills
-killed a plan to produce cheap Federal electric power on the Tennessee River. Refused to use Federal economic power to check the growing boom
Provided no aide to suffering agriculture industry
Isolation in foreign policy
Tax cuts Popularity: He rapidly became popular
"Coolidge Prosperity" "This active inactivity suits the mood and certain of the needs of the country admirably. It suits all the business interests which want to be let alone" -Walter Lippmann 1926 In 1924 polled more than
of the popular vote 54% In 1928, while vacationing in the Black Hills of South Dakota, Coolidge issued the most famous of his laconic statements, "I do not choose to run for President in 1928." During this time America had been booming and things were going well. After capably serving as Secretary of Commerce under Presidents Harding, the election of the Republican nominee, Herber Hoover, seemed to ensure prosperity for the public. A few months into Hoover's presidency the stock market crashed and the Great Depression started, officially ending the era of the roaring 20's Souces http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/herberthoover
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Hoover March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933 Early Life Political Views "We in America today are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land." A chicken in every pot and a car in every garage Wanted to reform the nation's regulatory system
Thought a federal bureaucracy should have limited regulation over a country's economic system
Wanted to improve the conditions of all Americans by encouraging public-private cooperation—what he termed "volunteerism"
Hoover thought volunteerism was better than governmental intervention (Which he thought opposed the American ideals of individualism and self-reliance)
Denounced laissez-faire thinking.
Wanted to maintin isolationism, foreign policy (began formulating Good Neigbor Policy), improve/protect farmers conditions, reform immigration laws, pro-business, and limited support of prohibition
Promised to overcome poverty and lower taxes for everyone Fun
Facts Unlike many pervious first ladies, Lou Henry Hoover, had made her own reputation; she graduated from Stanford as the only woman in her class with a degree in geology.
Hoover invented his own sport to keep fit while in the White House, a combination of volleyball and tennis, which he played every morning Born 1874 grew up in Oregon
He enrolled at Stanford University when it opened in 1891, graduating as a mining engineer. Married Lou Henry and went to China, where he worked for a private corporation as China's leading engineer. In 1900 the Boxer Rebellion caught the Hoovers in Tientsin under heavy fire for a month. While his wife worked in the hospitals, Hoover directed the building of barricades, and once risked his life rescuing Chinese children. Wartime Effort After-war Aid Time in China Education Germany declared war on France
American Consul General asked Hoover to help get stranded tourists home- In six weeks his committee helped 120,000 Americans return to the United States
Head of food administration- cut consumption of foods needed overseas and avoided rationing at home while keeping the allies fed Member of the Supreme Economic Council
Head of the American Relief Administration
Organized shipments of food for starving millions in central Europe. "Twenty million people are starving. Whatever their politics, they shall be fed!" When a critic questioned is giving of aid to the famine-stricket soviet Russia in 1921, saying he was helping Bolshevism, Hoover retorted, Hoover's Early Achievements A self-described progressive and reformer, had a reputation as a great humanitarian, was immensley opptimistic about America's future, and wanted to end poverty and provide prosperity to all Hoover won the election by a landslide, 58% but at the end of his presidency lost populatrity and re-election when his policies failed to end the great depression "Ours is a land rich in resources; stimulating in its glorious beauty; filled with millions of happy homes; blessed with comfort and opportunity." -Herbert Hoover, once elected CHANGE. CONFLICT. OLD V. NEW How the presidents reflected the modern times Hoover's How the presidents contrasted the modern times "Return to Normalcy" America was going through a time of great change, yet the vast majority was voting for presidents who wanted to revert back to the traditional times. NEW OLD Isolationism
Pro-Business Harding's Wanted to re-establish america to how it was before the war
Thought the progressive era complicated things Republican and Conservative like all the other presidents, he was the least contrasting to the modern times Coolidge's "Keeping it cool with Coolidge" Determined to preserve old moral and economic precepts even with the material prosperity
Quite a conservative during the load and exposed times
"Maintain the Status Quo" "Individualism Ideals" One can speculate that all the new advancements and progression prompted americans to seek out presidents with traditional ideals to contrast their rapidly changing environment, because its human nature to be scared of change and look toward the stability of things you know, things that stay the same. The citizens balanced the "new" america with "old" presidents