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Transcript of Sensory Systems
The Five Senses
The Sixth Sense
How do we sense the world around us?
Photo credit: http://sweetsistergina.typepad.com/joyful_purpose/2007/05/index.html
Graded potentials in the dendritic endings of a sensory neuron are called generator potentials.
Specialized cells that transduce sensory information have graded potentials that are called receptor potentials.
Rapidly-adapting receptors signal change in stimuli.
Slowly-adapting can monitor persistent stimuli.
Sensory stimuli are some representation of energy in the external environment
Transduction is the transformation of
energy into the electrochemical signal
of the action potential
What causes a neuron
to start an action potential?
Receptor potentials cause the release of neurotransmitter from receptor cells in a graded fashion.
The stronger the stimulus, the more neurotransmitter is released.
Generator or receptor potentials degrade so that signals don't persist.
Do you feel the clothes on your body?
The area where a stimulus is sensed on the receptor surface
Photo credit: http://www.neurobiography.info/teaching/lecture_handout.php?lectureid=2
Types of Receptors
free nerve endings
separate receptor cells
Sensory receptors can be classified in three ways.
Two are about structure and one is about function.
Classification based on the cellular structure, or what can be seen under the microscope.
Classification based on the position of the receptor in relation to the stimuli that it senses.
Classification based on the type of stimuli that they detect and transduce into a neural signal.
Photo credit: (c) Beuna Vista Pictures
The Sixth Sense
What type of neuron, by shape, is found in a sensory ganglion?
Which aspect of taste is a sense of H+ concentration?
What type of receptor cell is specialized for pain transduction?
What type of receptor cell is only found in the eye?
What sub-modality of taste is sensitive to the acidity of a substance?
Which type of receptor is responsible for transduction of sound stimuli?
Which of these cranial nerves is responsible for relaying taste information into the brain?
A) Olfactory (I)
B) Trigeminal (V)
C) Glossopharyngeal (IX)
D) Hypoglossal (XII)
Image source: http://www.unmc.edu/physiology/Mann/mann4b.html
Image source: http://f1000.com/prime/reports/b/1/58
Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_skin
Image source: http://www.pdpics.com/photo/1440-bitter-gourd-squash-cut/
Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/infomofo/4386457342
Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray938.png
All images from CNX Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax College. Sept 1, 2015. http://email@example.com:1/Preface unless otherwise noted
NOTE: I've mispoken. Cis-retinal is changed to trans-retinal by the photon.