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Nickel Catalyst in Industry

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Bettina Rodriguez

on 29 May 2014

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Transcript of Nickel Catalyst in Industry

The Great & Powerful Nickel!!
Introduction to Hydrogenation
Alkenes
are basically hydrocarbons that are unsaturated, meaning they have at least 1 double carbon bond- they are the reactants and are usually in liquid form (oils).
Alkanes
, on the other hand, are hydrocarbons with only singular bonds between the hydrocarbons making them saturated- they are the products and are usually quite solid.
Reaction Mechanism
STEP 1:
The hydrogen (H2) molecules react with the metal atoms of the catalyst. Any platinum group catalyst works but Nickel is usually used for economic reasons. The sigma bond (1 bond, H-H) of the H2 is broken and is replaced by two metal-H bonds.
Nickel as a Catalyst
Nickel is a transition metal used by industries in a process called
hydrogenation
in order to speed it up.

It is a heterogeneous catalyst because it is used in its solid states while the reactants are either in its aqueous or gaseous state.

Nickel is used to manufacture alkanes (saturated hydrocarbons) through hydrogenation to industries such as food, petrochemical, pharmaceutical and agricultural.
Benefits of Nickel in Industry
Nickel is beneficial to industries because it is a non-precious metal compared to other platinum group catalysts. In a superficial world, industries would use the cheaper option (Nickel>Platinum) to save costs.
STEP 2:
The pi bond (2 bonds, C=C) of the alkene is weakened by the catalyst and a hydrogen is moved from the catalyst to the surface, attaching itself to one of the carbons double bond.
STEP 3:
The second hydrogen will attach itself onto the other carbon bond forming an alkane.
Reasons for choosing Nickel in Hydrogenation
I chose my topic on this because I learned about hydrogenation briefly in biology last semester with our digestive system unit on lipids. I knew OF the process but didn't really understand the chemistry behind it, therefore I wanted to learn the effects of the use of a nickel catalyst in the process
Interesting Facts
According to the National Toxicology program, Nickel and certain nickel compounds are anticipated to be carcinogens.

Hydrogenation is actually a bad process because it turns a healthy unsaturated fat into a saturated fat that may contain trans fats.

Margarine, an alkane, has a few double bonds. The more single bonds there are, the harder the margarine is (and vice versa).

Hydrogenation is used in the food industry to manufacture goods such as spreads and shortenings from liquid oils.

The reaction takes place on Nickel's surface therefore the rate of reaction is proportional to the surface area of the catalyst.
Bibliography
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/alkenes/hydrogenation.html
http://www.ask.com/question/how-does-a-heterogeneous-catalyst-work
http://www.wou.edu/las/physci/ch334/lecture/lect16.htm
http://as.vanderbilt.edu/chemistry/Rizzo/chem220a/Chapter_6.pdf
http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry/Hydrocarbons/Alkenes/Reactions_of_Alkenes/Catalytic_Hydrogenation
http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/ni.htm
http://organicchemstudysite.tripod.com/alkanes.html
Quick Example Video
Reaction is
exothermic
because product has less energy than reactant.
In the video, platinum is used instead of nickel.
In society, nickel can be found in our daily foods and is a common ingredient to make steel and jewellery.

In our environment, nickel is not known to accumulate in plants/animals therefore they do not affect the food chain. Nickel is released in the air by power plants and trash incinerators which will settle in the ground after reactions with raindrops.
Nickel in Society & Environment
Full transcript