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The Legislative Branch!
Transcript of The Legislative Branch!
Known as the "upper" house of Congress.
100 Senators (2 per each state)
Serve for 6 years with one third elected every 2 years.
Congress: Article One:
The House of
Known as the "lower" house of Congress
process to determine the amount of representatives from each state, based on population census taken every ten years.
Each state must have at least one representative
Powers of the House
To vote on
charges of impeachment
To initiate bills involving the raising of revenue, such as
and the annual appropriations bills of the
annual federal budget
Who is the head of the House?
"The Speaker of the House"
The House of Representatives elects the Speaker of the House on the first day of every new Congress and in the event of the death or resignation of an incumbent Speaker.
The Speaker is the leader of the majority party in the House and is chosen by the members of that party
Powers of the Senate:
Try officials impeached
by the House
The Senate: Leadership
Vice President of the US
- serves as president of the Senate
President Pro Tempore
- presides over senate in place of VP, chosen by the majority party
(R) Orin Hatch (UT)
Majority and Minority Leaders
- lead respective parties and maintain senate agenda
Majority (R) Mitch McConnell (Kentucky)
Minority (D) Harry Reid (Nevada)
Majority and Minority Whips
- attempt to make sure party members vote for bills supported by their parties
Congressional Committee System
Before a bill is even debated by the full membership of the Senate or the House it must first survive the committee system
All representatives and Senators are assigned to different committees
Most are assigned to committees they feel they can best serve. So a representative from Iowa may be interested in joining the house Agriculture Committee
Most bills die in Committee
What committee would you join or create and why?
the period during which congress assembles and carries on its regular business
Constitution mandates one session
One Session= 2 years
both houses gather, usually only on special occasions (inaugurations, State of the Union Address)
meeting outside of normal legislation usually to discuss unfinished business
ex: outlining budget for next year
The House will be in session 132 days this year
The Senate about 170 days.
It is important for them to return home in their time off to meet with their constituents.
What is the day in the life of a Senator like?
used to extend debate in order to delay or entirely prevent a vote on a given proposal
Remember: its used as a time waster, a "fill-in"... a fill-in-buster... filibuster... see what I did there?
Can only occur in the Senate
- The senate can vote to place a limit on the consideration of a bill (overcoming filibuster)
- A break
: to End
- closed meeting of party members to decide on questions of policy/leadership
- Congress examines the actions of the Executive Branch
ex. Congress examines NSA
House Armed Services Committee
House Agriculture Committee
Senate Intelligence Committee
Generally expire after completion of assigned task
Used in history for treaties/compromises
House Committee on Global Warming (disbanded when the Republicans regained control of the House in 2011)
Appointed to resolve disagreements on a particular bill
if a bill is passed in one house but not the other, then they can have a conference to find a compromise
both chambers of congress involved: bicameral legislature
ex. Joint Committee on Taxation
Resolution: a bill proposed that does not require the force of law
ex. creating a committee or joint committee
requires approval by the Senate and the House and requires approval by the president (passing the budget)
passed by both houses, does not need to come before the president.
ex. creating a committee
The President can veto a bill or...
The Constitution grants the President
10 days to review a measure passed
by the Congress. If the president has
not signed the bill after 10 days, it
becomes law without his signature.
However, if Congress adjourns during
the 10-day period, the bill does not
Pocket Veto is not used often, but the Presidents may use it if they would like a bill to be passed, but not have their name attached to it.
What you should remember:
A pocket veto is a bill that the president doesn't sign and either dies because congress isn't in session, or passes in 10 days if they are in session
This is a punishment for a judge, member of congress or the President for inappropriate behavior.
Not as severe as impeachment
They don't lose their elected position
Does anyone know what bipartisan means?
In a two party system it means both parties are working together to find a solution.
Good Morning! :)
WARM UP: Write down your Congressional Committee from yesterday and one issue that the committee was facing.
Can I have everyone draw a chart of the set up of congress using the following terms:
-House of Rep.
-President Pro Tempore
-Speaker of the House
-Majority Leader (both houses)
-Minority Leader (both houses)
Could I have someone come draw their chart on the board?
Could anyone else draw the set up of our Maryland State General Assembly.
Please use words:
-House of Delegates
The Commerce Clause
this is a very important clause in Article 1, Section 8 that you looked at yesterday.
It controls commerce between states and with foreign nations.
So what does commerce mean?
The buying and selling
What does the VERB appropriate mean, and how do we see Congress do this?
Appropriate-devote money with a special purpose
Congress appropriates money for different tasks when they plan for the national budget
Thumbs up if you feel you understand the powers of Congress!
How do they determine how many members are in the House of Representatives and the House of Delegates?
Remember when voting for members of the House of Representatives or the House of Delegates, the state is divided up into districts based on population
There are 8 districts when voting for members of the House of Representatives (National)
In State elections Maryland is divided into 47 districts.
Why are districts shaped so weirdly?
How are districts decided?
After the Census is taken(every 10 years) the districts are remade to match population change
Members of the House of Delegates will purposefully redraw districts to give their party the advantage
How do I remember Gerrymandering?...
My friend Gerry Mandering is a corrupt politician who is always looking out for his party. Redrawing districts that fit his parties needs, even if it doesn't really make geographic sense or properly represent his constituents.
Please read the quote from the Baltimore Sun:
"Gov. Larry Hogan asked the Obama administration Tuesday to halt any resettling in Maryland of refugees from the Syrian civil war until it is certain that they pose no threat to public safety."
Warm Up Question: Does the Governor have the power to regulate Immigration?
Justice Kennedy wrote in the 2012 Supreme COurt decision in Arizona v. United States:
The Government of the United States has broad, undoubted power over the subject of immigration and the status of aliens. … This authority rests, in part, on the National Government’s constitutional power to “establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization,” U. S. Const., Art. I, §8, cl. 4, and its
as sovereign to control and conduct relations with foreign nations….
a body of voters in a specified area who elect a representative to a legislative body
What about Maryland?
In 2011, second-term Maryland Gov. Martin O’Malley (D) proposed a map that made it easier for Democrats to gain a seat in the House of Representatives — taking a slice of rapidly growing, and heavily Democratic, Montgomery County, and adding it to the otherwise rural, conservative 6th Congressional District.
Other, similar matchups virtually ensured Democratic control of seven of the state’s eight congressional districts. Montgomery and Howard counties, along with the city of Baltimore, were each divided among three districts. Baltimore and Anne Arundel counties, which lean more conservative, each were split among four districts.
Redrawing district lines in order to gain a political advantage
Districts do not actually represent the views of the constituents
District lines do not make sense geographically or according to population
Let's pretend we are power hungry politicians and
Gerrymander our state in order to ensure our political party wins
How long is a Senator's term?
Who are our Maryland Senators?
(D) Ben Cardin
(D) Chis Van Hollen
Elected in the 2016 Election
He was previously a Congressman representing the 8th district of Maryland (Frederick County Area)
Elected Senator in 2007.
Has never lost an election
Was a member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Maryland's 3rd congressional district from 1987 to 2007.
He also served in the Maryland House of Delegates from 1967 to 1987, serving as Speaker from 1979 to 1987.
The United States
House of Representatives
Speaker of the House
The United States Senate
The Vice President
The President Pro Tem
How does a bill become a law?
Warm Up: What is a bill?
A bill is a
We are going to be members of the US Congress and Hammond's Congress!
2 sections of the room will be the House and the third section will be the Senate!
Bills to Create
Get into groups of 3 people
Create two bills with your group to present to your house
A bill for Hammond
A bill for the United States
You will share one with the class to try and have passed!
1. Present bill to your chamber (Senate or House)
your chamber can suggest changes to the bill
3. Your chamber votes
4. Present bill to other house
We will skip this because you have already heard it because we are in the same room
Other house can make suggestions
5. Other house votes
6. Conference Committee
Any discussion between the houses?
7. Both chambers vote (Only if bill is changed from original presentation)
8. President--> Veto/Sign
9. Congress 2/3 vote?
Who can remember what part of the Constitution lists information about the Executive Branch?
What about the Legislative Branch?
Bill of Rights
The US Constitution
We explored Article I in the beginning of the year, but today we are going to take a closer look at the
POWERS OF CONGRESS
Article I: Section 8
1. Of the 18 powers listed in Section 8, choose
5 powers that you think are most important
2. Divide your paper into
3. Make 1 section a title
"Powers of Congress"
4. In the other five boxes:
-Describe the power of Congress
in your own words
-Provide a comic-like illustration to represent each power
We will be in the back computer lab!
The Federal Budget
A written estimation of the revenue the government anticipates that it will generate and the expenses it will have
In government, revenue is generated from taxes and fees it imposes.
Government expenditures range from national defense, infrastructure, grants for research, education, and the arts, and social programs such as Social Security and Medicare.
Let's get into our committees!
I will name your committee, please stand, and your committee will meet in the front of the room.
Once everyone has found their committee we will sit back down with our committee
Next 5 minutes
Each committee must prepare:
A description of their committee to share with the class
An issue your committee is dealing with
If you would like your paper back from yesterday, please raise your hand.
Committees help to address major issues like...
Funding our government programs like...
The Armed Forces
Science and Technology
International Aid Efforts
Committees in the news today!
What are some important powers of Congress?
"We are now in session!"
Good Morning! :)
: Try to brainstorm at least 5 committee topics from yesterday's activity.
Inherent Powers are not listed in the Constitution, but are necessary in order for the government to function. (Controlling Immigration, Creation of the NSA for security purposes, Executive Orders)
Warm Up: fill in the blanks...
1. __________ creates laws
2. __________ enforces the laws
3. __________ interprets the laws
Good Morning! 11/19
Warm Up: Please define the following terms...
Bicameral- two houses (senate and house)
Legislature- a law making body
Warm Up: Do you remember what Gerrymandering is?
HW: Quiz Friday
1. Read Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution
2. Choose 3 powers of Congress that you think are MOST important
3. Create a foldable! Each section is one of the three powers with
-The direct quote
-Translation of the quote in your own words
-Illustration of the power
4. On the back write in a paragraph (5 sentences) why you chose these three powers as most important.
Warm UP: Interpret the following quote
"The Congress shall have Power ... To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof."
What clause of the Constitution does this refer to? What does it mean?
The Necessary and Proper Clause
The Elastic Clause
Allows Congress to have
powers based on powers
directly in the Constitution.
their powers beyond what is listed in the Constitution in order to execute the roles that are expressed
Run Post Offices
Create stamps that cost money in order to fund the post office
back of the foldable
you made yesterday, write down in at least
why you think those three powers of Congress are most important.
Try this one!
Do you know what a pocket veto is?
Can you guess how many times President Obama has vetoed a bill?!
Good Morning! :)
To help us remember the bill process, you are going to make your own graphic organizers!
Time to be creative :)
How will you best remember this process?
1. The Legislative Branch creates the law
2. The Executive Branch enforces the law
3. The Judicial Branch interprets the law
-writes and passes laws for the United States
Law making body
Chambers or Houses
make up our Congress?
two houses of government that make laws
The House of Representatives
HW: Quiz Friday!
Warm Up: Fill in the blanks...
1. Bill is presented to first house of Congress
2. Bill is assigned a Committee
3. Bill must pass house with a majority vote
4. Bill is presented to second house of Congress
6. Bill must pass house with a _____________
7. Bill goes to a __________ committee with ______ houses
8. Bill is sent to President to sign, veto or ______________________
- The only way to break a filibuster
-First, at least 16 Senators sign a cloture motion
-Then at least 3/5ths of the Senators must vote to approve the cloture
Rules of a Congressional Filibuster
1. You must remain on the Senate floor. If you leave the floor, then the filibuster ends.
2. You must speak the entire time. If you stop speaking, then the filibuster ends.
3. You can't eat any food except a hard candy from the Senate candy dish.
4. You can't go to the bathroom!!
5. You can only drink water and milk
Parks and Recreation
- They work at a County Government
-Leslie Knope is the main character she is on the county council
-One councilman wants to remove her by having a recall vote to remove her.
-She will have to filibuster to save her position in government!
Warm Up: In what house does a bill start to become a law?
HW: Study for test on Friday
Objectives: Congressional Simulation
We have learned so much about Congress!
Today you will be pretending that you are in Congress!
You will join a Congressional Committee of five other students to draft two bills!
One bill will be made to address an issue in our nation
One bill be made to address an issue at Hammond
Your committee will present one of these bills to your House and hope that it passes both houses and is signed by the President!!!
1. Choose your group of five
2. Go to the site below and choose which Congressional Committee your group would like to be in.
-The committee you choose should create laws that relate to the committee
3. Research your committee and answer the questions
4. Brainstorm your bills with your group!
5. Write your formal bills
6. Choose which bill you would like to present to Congress!
Warm Up: What is the name of our Maryland State Legislature?
HW: Quiz Friday
Objectives: Finish your bills! Due at the end of the period!
The General Assembly
Located in Annapolis
This Legislature passes Maryland state laws
Like Congress, it is a bicameral legislature (made of 2 houses)
The General Assembly
The State Senate
1 per district
The House of Delegates
Based on population
Warm Up: On your handout define "urban", "suburban", and "rural"
HW: Quiz Friday on the Legislative Branch
Metropolitan over 1,000,000 or a city with a population over 100,000
Urban areas are ususally occupied by large commercial/residential buildings
A mostly residential area that is outside of a city
Lower population than the dense city center
Small population and a large amount of land
Many farms and lots of free space
Villages and small towns
How well do you know your state?
Warm Up: How does the government determine the amount of members each state has in the House of Representative?
Objective: Discuss apportionment and gerrymandering
HW: Quiz Friday on the Legislative Branch
HW: Quiz Friday!
The President can take one of several possible actions:
1. The president may take
. If Congress is in session, the bill automatically becomes law after ten days.
A pocket veto
occurs when the president takes no action and Congress has adjourned its session. In this case, the bill dies and does not become a law.
3. The president may decide that the bill is unwise or unnecessary and
veto the bill.
4. The president may
sign the bill
, and the bill becomes law.
Reflect On this Process
Answer the questions using the chart, and your critical analysis skills!
If you forgot what we discussed go to this site for review or look at your paper!
Warm Up: What is a filibuster? (Answer after watching the clip)
HW: Study for test Friday on the Legislative Branch
Objective: Create bills in committees