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Transcript of The "isms"
Ideology is defined as the principles that motivate political parties, providing a vision of the society they want to create
Unifying force between members and supporters
Ideology is not always the guiding force in political parties
American parties are less ideological.
Western European parties are based
Leftist parties: Pragmatism
Sometimes, ideology is not as prominent as a driving force that motivates a political party...
Marxists ---> refer as a coherent set of ideas, beliefs and values through which an individual can make sense of the social world they inhabit.
Individualism and collectivism are important ways of differentiating political ideologies
. Own interests
. Achieve self-fulfilment
. Achieve commonly agreed goals
. Group need above individual needs
. Commonly related with socialism.
Political Spectrum ---> a way of placing different political ideologies in relation to the others, showing the similarities and differences that exist between them.
Socialism appears as a reaction of capitalism.
It rejects a society in which the inequalities in the distribution of wealth and political power result in social injustice
Different ideas of socialism:
. fundamentalist socialists believe that control of all means of productions is indispensable.
. reforming the capitalist system rather than abolishing it ---> social democracy
--->There are no social classes
---> And no private property
But we haven't seen this yet
---> States that have called themselves “communists” have not achieved the ideal situation presented by Marx.
Anarchism could easily mean “no rules”
Abolition of political authorities especially the law and order
social order will develop naturally
Social democracy suggests that social inequalities could be changed with a level of state intervention
Keynes ---> market economy should be subject of state intervention.
Liberalism emphasized individualism and mentions that human beings should exercise the maximum possible freedom with the others being able to enjoy the same liberty
opposition to the intervention of the state in everyday lives of its citizens
Progressivism is generally identified with the center-left of the political spectrum and seeks social and political reform which has to be beneficial to the majority of the population.
Neo-liberalism: seeks economic liberalism, private enterprises and the free market
skepticism towards change
There is support for the private ownership, this results in opposition to any form of social protest
Conservatism rejects the goal of equality
opposition to communism and Marxism
This ideology also emphasizes the importance of nation and race, in consequence there is a desire of territorial expansion and the practice of racism and genocide
.http://soc202.wordpress.com/module-2-global-economic-inequalities/economic-inequality/. 30/09/2012. "Economic Inequality"
.Peter Joyce. Politics.
What is ideology?
it's complicated & political
A political belief system.
An action-orientated set of political ideas.
The ideas of the ruling class.
The world-view of a particular social class or social group.
Political ideas that embody or articulate class or social interests.
Ideas that propagate false consciousness amongst the exploited or oppressed.
Ideas that situate the individual with in a social context and generate a sense of collective belonging.
An officially sanctioned set of ideas used to legitimize a political system or regime.
An all-embracing political doctrine that claims a monopoly of truth .
An abstract and highly systematic set of political ideas.
in other words, Ideology is complicated and involves power relations
Working Definition in Political Science
An ideology is a more or less coherent set of ideas that provides the basis for organized political action, whether this is intended to preserve, modify or overthrow the existing system of power.
Ideology is not the opposite of Practice or Action
What is ideology if we think of politics as the expression or repression of alternatives?
a) offer an account of the existing order, usually in the form of a “world-view,”
b) advance a model of a desired future, a vision of the “good society,” and
c) explain how political change can and should be brought about - how to get from (a) to (b).
All Ideologies therefore:
Where does the concept of "ideology" come from?
First used during the French Revolution by Antoine Destutte de Tracy in 1796 and referred to a new "science of ideas"...an idea-ology.
But that first use doesn't tell us much, except that it was created during a time of political upheaval
von Hayek's "Planned Economy"
it's about governments role in the economy...but it's also political (about alternatives)
government's role in the economy is a huge part of classical liberalism
more right than in Europe
sometimes conservative, sometimes liberal
emphasizes primacy of individual liberty, political freedom, voluntary association
Close to Anarchism, but insists on little/no government in economy or culture
the moral view that agents initially fully own themselves and have certain moral powers to acquire property rights in external things
unwavering attachment to a set of irreducible beliefs
often religious, but not always
Usually something "they do" not "us"
Often called a threat
in other words...