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早期教會三一論發展(二)

教會歷史一:第八課
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John Chan

on 14 November 2014

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Transcript of 早期教會三一論發展(二)

早期教會三一論發展(二)
ὁμοούσιος
尼西亞會議 325
Council of Nicaea
That there is nothing more honourable in my sight than the fear of God, is, I believe, manifest to every man. Now because it was agreed formerly that the synod of bishops should meet at Ancyra of Galatia, it hath seemed to us on many accounts that it would be well for
a synod to assemble at Nicaea, a city of Bithynia
, both because the bishops from Italy and the rest of the countries of Europe are coming, and because of the excellent temperature of the air, and in order that I may be present as a spectator and participator in those things which will be done. Wherefore I signify to you, my beloved brethren, that all of you promptly assemble at the said city, that is at Nicaea. Let every one of you therefore, regarding that which is best, as I before said, be diligent, without delay in anything, speedily to come, that he may be in his own person present as a spectator of those things which will be done by the same.
God keep you my beloved brethren.
奧古斯丁的三一論 De Trinitate
Let me remember you, let me understand you, let me love you. Increase these things in me until you reform me completely.
substance vs Accident
亞里士多德哲學
本質 vs 偶性
God is not Substance (trin. 7,10)
Substance
Accident
quantity
quality
relation
habitus
time
location
situation
action
passion
relation is accident!!
Person in Relation
No,not in God
ad se
ad aliquid relatiue
耶穌是榮耀的
聖父是榮耀的
聖靈是榮耀的
三一榮耀的關係
上帝是公義
上帝是慈愛
上帝是和平
三一神

mens humana

imago Dei
認識神,先認識自己
mens
notitia sui
amor sui
三一上帝與人的關係
God is Love
memoria
intellegentia
voluntas

hypostasis
ousia
亞他拿修
俄利根的三一論
God
世界
logos
邏各斯是永恆的嗎?
耶穌
尼西亞信經

我信獨一上帝,全能的父,創造天地的,並造
有形無形的
萬物的主。
我信獨一主耶穌基督,上帝的獨生子,
在萬世之前,為父所生,從神出來的神,
從光出來的光,從真神出來的真神,
受生的,不是被造的,
與父一體的

萬物都是藉著主受造的。
主為要拯救我們世人,
從天降臨,由聖靈感孕童貞女馬利亞所生,
取著肉身,並成為人,在本丟彼拉多手下,
為我們釘十字架;被害,埋葬;
照聖經第三日復活,升天,坐在父的右邊;
將來必有大榮耀,再降臨,審判活人死人。
他的國無窮無盡。
我信聖靈,為主,並賜生命的根源,
從父子出來的,與父子同受敬拜,
同受尊榮,曾藉著先知傳言。
我信唯一聖而公之教會,乃使徒所傳者。
我認為赦罪設立的獨一洗禮。
我指望死人復活,並來世的生命。阿們。
亞流主義
上帝是simple and one,不可能改變 (accident)
否定基督的永恆性
子曾有時間不存在
基督是受造的

父子同質
尼西亞神學
神格唯一論?
皇帝對會議決定施加壓力

聖靈是神
從屬論
本質相似
homoiousios
homoousios
(deuteros theos)

Incarnation


拯救
神化
基督是神
永恆

break :)
加帕多加教父

尼撒貴格利
(Gregory of Nyssa)
335- c. 395

Cappadocian Fathers
Arius
巴西流
(Basil the Great)
330–379
拿先斯貴格利
(Gregory of Nazianze)
330-390
兄弟
好朋友
認識
In a brief statement, I shall say that
essence (ousia) is related to substance (hypostasis) as the general to the particular
. Each one of us partakes of existence because he shares in ousia while because of his individual properties he is A or B. So, in the case in question,
ousia refers to the general conception, like goodness, godhead, or such notions, while hypostasis is observed in the special properties of fatherhood, sonship, and sanctifying power.
If then they speak of persons without hypostasis they are talking nonsense, ex hypothesi; but if they admit that the person exists in real hypostasis, as they do acknowledge, let them so number them as to preserve the principles of the homoousion in the unity of the godhead, and proclaim their reverent acknowledgment of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, in the complete and perfect hypostasis of each person so named.

(Epistle 214.4.)
Perichoresis
互滲互透
動態三一論 (dynamic trinity)
馬可13:32「但那日子,那時辰,沒有人知道,連天上的使者也不知道,子也不知道,惟有父知道。」
約翰14:28「你們聽見我對你們說了,我去還要到你們這裡來。你們若愛我,因我到父那裡去,就必喜樂,因為父是比我大的。」
聖父受苦論
幻影論
動態神格唯一論 (子嗣論)
形態神格唯一論(撒百流主義)
孟他努派
摩尼教
馬吉安主義
TEST
天使基督論
邏各斯論

神格唯一論

基督
250–336
君士坦丁的信
邀請人數:
出席人數:
1800
350
ὁμοούσιος
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
o
o
o
o
h
m
u
S
i
s
https://www.google.com/maps/preview#!q=Nicaea&data=!1m4!1m3!1d2821434!2d29.1771657!3d41.210314!4m10!1m9!4m8!1m3!1d22390198!2d26.9359547!3d41.7330332!3m2!1i1280!2i705!4f13.1
Click me :)
亞他拿修
27 years old
沒有解釋怎樣同質
沒有闡明三個位格的差異
沒有提及聖靈位置
Athanasius 296-373
救贖論
以永恒聖父推論出永恆的聖子
唯有上帝啓示自己才是真正的啓示
敬拜論
基督的神性
Semi-Arianism
生平
48/50
70
64
130-202
182-254
160-220
Irenaeus
Tertullian
Origen
100
200
300
313
400
500
原基督教時期
早期教會磨難增長期
早期教會國教時期
早期教會歷史
耶路撒冷會議
尼祿王大迫害
耶路撒冷聖殿被毀
猶太人基督教
保羅
希臘化基督教
約翰
耶路撒冷
猶太人基督教
希臘化基督教
vs
諾斯底主義 gnosticism
Edictum Mediolanense
米蘭敕令
君士坦丁
Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus
http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/137297/augustus
Imperator
Caesar
Divi F.
Augustus
(63 BC-14 BC)
凱撒大帝(100 BC- 44 BC)的甥孫和養子,亦被正式指定為凱撒的繼承人
羅馬帝國的開國君主 (先前羅馬共和國)
奧古斯都死後, 其借名
凱撒
和他的稱號
奧古斯都
都成了未來四百年羅馬統治者的永久性稱號
德意志皇帝號Kaiser與沙皇號Tsar都是從他的名字衍生而來
《君士坦丁誌》
Eusebius - Vita Constantini
Flavia Iulia
Helena
Augusta
虔誠基督徒
旅館服務員
272-280 養育君士坦丁
289 Constantius Chlorus 與Helena分開,與Theodora結婚
是否與Constantius Chlorus結婚?

312
君士坦丁與馬克森提兩軍在密爾維橋 Milvian Bridge 對峙,君士坦丁決定求助於唯一的神。在中午時,他看見雙交的光在太陽之前閃耀,並出現字樣 Εν Τούτω, Νίκα!,君士坦丁與他的士兵都看到此奇蹟。那天晚上,耶穌出現在他的夢中,並告訴他,將中午出現在天空的符號複製,並以此作防禦。最後其軍隊獲勝。
http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/2502.htm
皇位爭奪戰
Augustus
Caesar
Augustus
Caesar
Diocletian (284-305 在位)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diocletianic_Persecution
West
East
四頭政制
Tetrarch
Constantius Chlorus - Constantine
Maximian - Maxentius
P
X
Χριστός
用呢個,win硬!
392
基督教正式成為國家宗教
Theodosius (346-395)
296-373
Athanasius of Alexandria
325
第一次尼西亞會議
Nicene Council
休息
聖君士坦丁
「第十三個使徒」
君士坦丁是真基督徒嗎?
從太陽神敬拜到基督教的一神論
戰勝Maxentius 後承認自己為基督徒
參與基督教的崇拜
沒有經歷「悔改回轉」一刻
道德生活嚴重缺憾(為保權位,殘殺親信)
臨終一刻才受洗,加入教會
晚期開始對基督教有真正的興趣,死後葬禮更以基督教儀式嚴格舉行
330
遷都君士坦丁堡
(Constantinople)
361年
朱利安 Julian
打壓基督教
討論問題:
基督教成為國教,你認為是利多於弊,還是弊多於利? 你認為基督教應該與政府扣上關係嗎?
10min
信徒人數激增
教會權力增加
教會資源大增
正統性更強,迫壓異端
政治與教會關係複雜,教義受政治因素影響
教會是征服者,
不再是受苦者
313
你會如何牧養君士坦丁?
335
亞他拿修第一次被逐
339
亞他拿修第二次被逐
328
亞他拿修任亞歷山大主教
346
歸回亞歷山大
356
亞他拿修第三次被逐
362
歸回亞歷山大
372
安息主懷
24 Oct 362 – 5 Sep 363
第四次被逐
5 Oct 365 – 31 Jan 366
第五次被逐
亞他拿修
事奉上帝的生命
337
君士坦丁過世
論《路加福音》十章二十二節
Reading Time
381
君士坦丁堡會議
第二次大公會議
完全抗拒亞流主義
確定基督完全的神性
接納尼西亞信經為教會正統的信經
興趣:研究神學
, 苦修
Basil the Great
hypostasis
hypostasis




尼撒貴格利 (Gregory of Nyssa)

社羣三一論 (Social trinity)
God is
10. If, however, it is fitting that God should be said to subsist— (For this word is rightly applied to those things, in which as subjects those things are, which are said to be in a subject, as color or shape in body. For body subsists, and so is substance; but those things are in the body, which subsists and is their subject, and they are not substances, but are in a substance: and so, if either that color or that shape ceases to be, it does not deprive the body of being a body, because it is not of the being of body, that it should retain this or that shape or color; therefore neither changeable nor simple things are properly called substances.)— If, I say, God subsists so that He can be properly called a substance, then there is something in Him as it were in a subject, and He is not simple, i.e. such that to Him to be is the same as is anything else that is said concerning Him in respect to Himself; as, for instance, great, omnipotent, good, and whatever of this kind is not unfitly said of God.
But it is an impiety to say that God subsists, and is a subject in relation to His own goodness, and that this goodness is not a substance or rather essence, and that God Himself is not His own goodness, but that it is in Him as in a subject.
And hence it is clear that God is improperly called substance, in order that He may be understood to be, by the more usual name essence, which He is truly and properly called
; so that perhaps it is right that
God alone should be called essence
. For He is truly alone, because He is unchangeable; and declared this to be His own name to His servant Moses, when He says,
I am that I am
; and, Thus shall you say unto the children of Israel: He who is has sent me unto you. However, whether He be called essence, which He is properly called, or substance, which He is called improperly, He is called both in respect to Himself, not relatively to anything; whence to God to be is the same thing as to subsist; and so the Trinity,
if one essence, is also one substance. Perhaps therefore they are more conveniently called three persons than three substances.
essence
esse
神是愛
關係中的位格
se nosse
Wherefore, if Holy Scripture proclaims that God is love, and that love is of God, and works this in us that we abide in God and He in us, and that hereby we know this, because He has given us of His Spirit, then
the Spirit Himself is God, who is love
. Next, if there be among the gifts of God none greater than love, and there is no greater gift of God than the Holy Spirit, what follows more naturally than that He is Himself love, who is called both God and of God? And if the love by which the
Father loves the Son, and the Son loves the Father
, ineffably demonstrates the communion of both, what is more suitable than that He should be specially called love, who is the Spirit common to both? For this is the sounder thing both to believe and to understand, that the Holy Spirit is not alone love in that Trinity, yet is not specially called love to no purpose, for the reasons we have alleged; just as He is not alone in that Trinity either a Spirit or holy, since both the
Father is a Spirit, and the Son is a Spirit; and both the Father is holy, and the Son is holy
—as piety doubts not. And yet it is not to no purpose that He is specially called the Holy Spirit; for because He is common to both, He is specially called that which both are in common. Otherwise, if in that Trinity the Holy Spirit alone is love, then doubtless the Son too turns out to be the Son, not of the Father only, but also of the Holy Spirit. For He is both said and read in countless places to be so—the only-begotten Son of God the Father; as that what the apostle says of God the Father is true too: Who has delivered us from the power of darkness and has translated us into the kingdom of the Son of His own love. He did not say, of His own Son. If He had so said, He would have said it most truly, just as He did say it most truly, because He has often said it; but He says, the Son of His own love. Therefore He is the Son also of the Holy Spirit, if there is in that Trinity no love in God except the Holy Spirit. And if this is most absurd, it remains that the Holy Spirit is not alone therein love, but is specially so called for the reasons I have sufficiently set forth; and that the words, Son of His own love, mean nothing else than His own beloved Son—the Son, in short, of His own substance. For the love in the Father, which is in His ineffably simple nature, is nothing else than His very nature and substance itself—as we have already often said, and are not ashamed of often repeating. And hence the Son of His love, is none other than He who is born of His substance. (trin. 15, 19, 37)
But whereas, in the same Trinity, some things severally are specially predicated, these are in no way said in reference to themselves in themselves, but either in mutual reference, or in respect to the creature; and, therefore, it is manifest that such things are spoken relatively, not in the way of substance. For the Trinity is called one God, great, good, eternal, omnipotent; and the same God Himself may be called His own deity, His own magnitude, His own goodness, His own eternity, His own omnipotence: but the Trinity cannot in the same way be called the Father, except perhaps metaphorically, in respect to the creature, on account of the adoption of sons. For that which is written, Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God is one Lord, ought certainly not to be understood as if the Son were excepted, or the Holy Spirit were excepted; which one Lord our God we rightly call also our Father, as regenerating us by His grace. Neither can the Trinity in any wise be called the Son, but it can be called, in its entirety, the Holy Spirit, according to that which is written, God is a Spirit; because both the Father is a spirit and the Son is a spirit, and the Father is holy and the Son is holy.
Therefore, since the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit are one God, and certainly God is holy, and God is a spirit, the Trinity can be called also the Holy Spirit.
But yet that Holy Spirit, who is not the Trinity, but is understood as in the Trinity, is spoken of in His proper name of the Holy Spirit relatively, since He is referred both to the Father and to the Son, because the Holy Spirit is the Spirit both of the Father and of the Son. But the relation is not itself apparent in that name, but it is apparent when He is called the gift of God; for He is the gift of the Father and of the Son, because He proceeds from the Father, as the Lord says; and because that which the apostle says, Now, if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of His, he says certainly of the Holy Spirit Himself. When we say, therefore, the gift of the giver, and the giver of the gift, we speak in both cases relatively in reciprocal reference.
Therefore the Holy Spirit is a certain unutterable communion of the Father and the Son
; and on that account, perhaps, He is so called, because the same name is suitable to both the Father and the Son. For He Himself is called specially that which they are called in common; because both
the Father is a spirit and the Son a spirit, both the Father is holy and the Son holy. In order, therefore, that the communion of both may be signified from a name which is suitable to both, the Holy Spirit is called the gift of both. And this Trinity is one God, alone, good, great, eternal, omnipotent; itself its own unity, deity, greatness, goodness, eternity, omnipotence.
不變的
可變的
「位格」的問題
trin. 9-15
從屬論
/essence/
/substance/
/substance/
/substance/
of Alexandria
從屬論的極端
that the Word (Logos) and the Father were not of the same essence (ousia);
that the Son was a created being (ktisma or poiema); and
that the worlds were created through him, so he must have existed before them and before all time.
However, there was a "once" [Arius did not use words meaning "time", such as chronos or aion] when He did not exist, before he was begotten of the Father.
復活節問題
教會紀律
懺悔和補贖禮
神職人員獨身
Constantius
(337-361)
亞流主義當道
新尼西亞派神學家
論證基督的神性
http://www.fourthcentury.com/second-creed-of-sirmium-or-the-blasphemy-of-sirmium/
Second Sirmium Confession 357
《論聖靈》
from Father
through the Son
in the Spirit
三者不能缺其一
Godhead has an individual priority:
the Son has epistemological priority
the Father has ontic priority
the Spirit has metaphysical priority.
影響:
περιχώρησις
Maximus Confessor (d. 662)
John of Damascus (d. 749)
東方教會的三一語言
靜態
尼西亞派教父
Full transcript