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1962 and 1967 - Comparing the Aboriginal and African American struggle for poitical recognition
Transcript of 1962 and 1967 - Comparing the Aboriginal and African American struggle for poitical recognition
African - American
Aborigines receive federal voting rights (except in Queensland).
Yolngue People of Arnhem Land petition government over the excise of Land from Arnhem Land reserve for mining. This led to the formation of the Aboriginal Land Rights Commission.
“Freedom Rides” through NSW ends segregation. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal activists set out with an aim to stop discrimination. Federal Government replaced the Assimilation policy with the new Integration policy, recognising the rights of the Aboriginal people to run their own affairs, keep their customs and be equal.
Indigenous workers walk off Vestey’s cattle station at Wave Hill, demanding better pay and conditions. This strike lasted nine years and led to a campaign for Aboriginal land rights and as an outcome the Arbitration Commission ruled that there was to be no discrimination in pay between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal workers.
Referendum for Constitutional Amendment successful; 90% of voters vote ‘yes’; allows Aborigines to be counted in the census; allowed the Aborigines to be placed under jurisdiction of the Commonwealth so laws affecting them could be implemented consistently and fairly across Australia.
Tool used by government to count their country's population and gather demographic information such as their age, gender, where they live, and how much they earn.
Policy requiring immigrants to publicly adopt their new country’s culture while still being able to celebrate their own culture privately.
A formal expression of opinion or choice, either positive or negative , made by an individual or body of individuals in democracy.
In the 1960's the African-American in the South were suffering from segregation and racial discrimination. In 1963 the Voting Rights Act created a significant change in the African-American Rights in the South. It prohibited literacy tests, interpreting the constitution and the other methods of excluding African-Americans from voting.
Civil Rights Act passed ending racial discrimination in America including unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public
Malcolm X founds the Afro-American Unity Organisation aiming to unite all Americans of African descent against discrimination.
The famous speech,'I have a Dream' by Martin Luther King Jr. was addressed on 28th of August 1963. This created an upheaval among the Aborigines, who themselves demanded their own rights.
February 21 - Malcolm X is assassinated in Harlem at the Audubon Ballroom.
August 6 - President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Voting Rights Act into law, which illegalises discriminatory voting requirements.
August 11 - The Watts riot breaks out in Los Angeles.
The practice of keeping ethnic, racial, religious, or gender groups separate, especially by enforcing the use of separate schools, transportation, housing, and other facilities, and usually discriminating against a minority group.
African - Americans
A referendum is when voters vote on a proposal to change the constitution. For the constitution to be changed the majority of the votes must say ‘yes’; the majority of ‘yes’’ also must occur in the majority of states. Before 1967 when the referendum regarding Aborigines was held there had been 26 referendums with only 4 being passed and changing the constitution.
Why the Referendum?
Although it was important for the Aborigines to be included in the census as Australian citizens there were also other reasons for the referendum.
October 15 - Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale found the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California.
Laws against interracial marriage are made unconstitutional
November 7 - Cal Stokes is elected as the major of Cleveland, making him the first African-American to be elected mayor of a major American city.
Not allowed vote in federal elections until the 1960s.
Involved in various protests including marches, freedom rides, etc.
Were racially segregated.
Given few rights until 1960-70s
Martin Luther King Jr
Martin Luther King Jr. was an American activist and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience. On October 14, 1964, King received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence.
Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, was an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist. For a dozen years he was the public face of the controversial Nation of Islam; in keeping with the Nation's teachings he espoused black supremacy, advocated the separation of black and white Americans and scoffed at the civil rights movement's emphasis on integration.
Neville Bonner was Australia's first Indigenous politician. He then became a senator for Queensland and served for twelve years. He was also the first Indigenous person to sit in federal parliament.
A central focus to his work as a politician involved improving the conditions of his fellow Indigenous people. Bonner helped change the face of Indigenous rights in Australia. He was an honest man who never let anger dominate his work.
Not counted in census before 1967.
Not all counted in census before 1960s.
Kath Walker, whose Indigenous name was Oodgeroo Nooncal, was Australia's first Indigenous poet to gain recognition from around the world. Walker was born in 1920 and began writing poetry from an early age. She grew up on North Stradbroke Island, which became to inspiration for much of her poetry.
Kath Walker (Oodgeroo Nooncal)
Walker finally had her poetry published when she was in her forties. She was also a strong advocate for Indigenous rights. During the 1960s, Walker began campaigning for equality. She travelled the world fighting for the rights of Australia's Indigenous people. She died in 1993.
COMPARING AUSTRALIA's INDIGENOUS PEOPLE to USA's AFRICAN AMERICANS
1962 - 1967