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WORLD WAR 2
Transcript of WORLD WAR 2
1939 - 1945
Adolf Hitler violates the 1919 Treaty of Versailles by building up the German military and taking old German territory back.
World leaders try
in 1938 Munich Conference in an effort to keep peace, allowing Germany to keep the land.
WORLDWIDE ECONOMIC DEPRESSION
The Great Depression
affected the entire world.
FDR spent the 1930's implementing his "New Deal", trying to heal the US economy.
Other countries were not as fortunate as the US.
in these countries placed great demands on their people and took new territory as they tried to fix their broken economies.
Germany, Japan, Italy, & the Soviet Union
1931 - violate TR's treaty, taking Manchuria
declare war on China
1940 - took resources from neighboring countries
1941 - Signed Peace Treaty with USSR
Militaristic society prepares for full war
Urged US to join the war years before Pearl Harbor attacks
Felt that Hitler was Allies greatest threat
Rallied British citizens to hold out against German bombing
“We shall never surrender!”
“If the British Empire lasts for a thousand years, men will still say, ‘This was their finest hour!”
The Soviet Union
Succeeded Lenin by killing all political enemies and opponents
Collectivization of all private property
10-15 Million deaths from 1922 - 1953
Dangerous totalitarian Communist ruler, but our Ally during World War 2 because we have the same enemy.
Blamed Jewish people for harsh WW1 treaty and all of Germany's other problems.
Wanted to purify the Aryan race and promoted it as superior to all other races. Wanted to exterminate the Jewish race and gain “living space” for these people by conquering Russia.
A Quick Victory for Hitler's Axis Powers???
Germany invaded Poland in 1939
By 1940, England was the only European country not taken.
In Asia, Japan controlled half the continent by 1941
The World was being taken over by the Axis Powers.
What would the USA do???
Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, 1937, & 1939 –
passed by Congress to avoid the mistakes that led to US involvement in World War 1.
Cash & Carry 1939
– FDR was anti-Nazi and wanted to aid democracies in Europe. US traded with any country paying in cash. UK and France controlled seas, so this was a big help
Destroyers for Bases – 1940
agreement between US and UK that send old WW1 destroyers in exchange for British land
Lend – Lease Act
– By 1941, the Allies were running low on cash, so FDR proposed lending or leasing supplies to them. They receive about $7 Billion worth of war supplies
ARE WE REALLY NEUTRAL???
"We need to quarantine these aggressor countries to maintain peace and protect democracy." FDR, 1937
USA JOINS THE BATTLE IN AFRICA - 1942
After failing to conquer England, Hitler spreads through Southern Europe into North Africa.
Germany attacks the USSR in 1941
OPERATION TORCH: First action seen by US troops against Germans.
North Africa, fighting with British troops
Air & Naval battle between Great Britain and Germany in 1940.
6 months of bombing demolished every major British city but they hold out.
Lend-Lease supplies help GB win this crucial battle
THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
BATTLE OF STALINGRAD 1942-43
1.5 Million casualties - highest ever
Hitler's first loss, begins to turn the tide against Germany
Hitler orders the German commander to commit suicide rather than surrender to the Russians
D-DAY - JUNE 6, 1944
Allied invasion of France to take back Europe
2 Million Allied Soldiers participated in some way
10,000 Allied Casualties
2,500 U.S. Deaths
Date and Location were the most heavily guarded secret on the planet. The Allies even made up a fictitious Army to deceive Hitler-it worked.
BATTLE OF THE BULGE
Hitler's final attempt in Winter of 1944-45 to try and win the war.
Worst winter in 50 years.
Caught the Allies completely off guard.
Heroic effort by the 101st Airborne Division to defeat the German Army
YALTA CONFERENCE 1945
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met to plan for the post-war world
Agreed that Germany would be divided up among the 4 main Allied Powers.
Poland, Bulgaria, and Romania would hold free elections after the war
He and his wife commit suicide in their underground bunker in Berlin as Soviet troops entered the city
Gave orders to burn his body afterwards
APRIL 30, 1945
POTSDAM CONFERENCE 1945
Germany divided up into 4 occupation zones
USSR declares war on Japan
Stalin refuses to allow free elections in Eastern Europe
Beginning of the
between the US & USSR
PEARL HARBOR ATTACKS
Surprise attack on US Navy - December 7, 1941
4 hour attack
Destroyed 188 planes and sunk 21 ships
On 7th & 8th, Japan attacked PH, Guam, the Philippines and 3 other major islands in the Pacific.
January, 1942, Japan controlled entire Pacific Ocean
US/JAPANESE RELATIONSHIP BEFORE WAR
US warned Japan to stop their aggressive behavior in China
1940 - US bans the sale of ammo, steel, and gas to Japan
1941 - US aid starts flowing to China, Japan's enemy
November & December of 1941, Japan worked with the US to develop a peace agreement
By the weekend of December 5,6, all Japanese delegates in Washington mysteriously vanish...
Japan's Reach Across the Pacific
BATTLE OF CORAL SEA
May, 1942, Air battle
First US action in the Pacific
Saved Australia from Japanese invasion
BATTLE OF MIDWAY
Huge US victory
Japan loses 3 carriers and 250 aircraft
Ends the threat from the Japanese Navy
First action for US Marines
Island Hopping strategy begins
Difficult fighting in dense jungle
Gen. Douglas MacArthur retreated in 1942 on FDR's order. Promised citizens: "I shall return."
Bataan Death March
1944, US forces finish off Japanese Navy in Battle of Leyte Gulf, taking back the Philippine Islands
110,000 US troops vs. 25,000 Japanese
Japanese were instructed to fight to the death, killing 10 Americans before they died. Only 216 surrendered at the end of the month-long battle.
25,000 US Casualties
25 Medals of Honor awarded
Last obstacle before invading Japanese Islands
Banzai charges & Kamikaze attacks
180,000 US vs. 75,000 Japanese
50,000 US casualties, worst single battle in US History.
Close enough that US bombers could now reach Japan
Planning for the invasion of Japan would now begin, if necessary...
FDR's top secret project to build the world's first atomic weapon
Initiated by Albert Einstein, a German Jew who escaped in the 1930s
First test bombing is on July 16, 1945 in the New Mexico desert
Test Bomb atop the Tower
1 Footing of the Tower After Blast
Invasion of Japan is estimated to cause
500,000 US casualties
Using the bomb on Japan will
kill AT LEAST 250,000 Japanese
, many of which aren't in the military
President Truman's Decision
WHAT WOULD YOU DO???
HIROSHIMA - AUGUST 6, 1945
Large city filled with factories for military production
140,000 Japanese deaths
NAGASAKI - August 9, 1945
City known for military production
Stronger bomb than Hiroshima, but mountains around the city help to contain the blast
Light from the Blasts is so intense it burns shadows onto their surfaces.
August 15, 1945
Victory in Japan Day, V-J Day
V-J Day Celebrations in NYC
JAPANESE INTERNMENT CAMPS
US Govt and citizens were afraid of spying by Japanese-American citizens
Placed in prison camps from 1942, after Pearl Harbor, until the war was over in 1945.
Korematsu vs. US - US Supreme Court allows the prison camps for indefinite time - LOSS OF CIVIL LIBERTIES
EXECUTIVE ORDER #9066 PLACED 110,000 JAPANESE AMERICANS IN CUSTODY
ISSUES IN THE US DURING WORLD WAR 2
Out of 100,000 US defense workers, only 240 were African American
Executive Order #8802 requires fair hiring practices regardless of race
1 Million African Americans served in combat - segregated units
Double V for Victory - Victory against Facism and Discrimination
Brought laborers in from Mexico to work on US farms
Initiated decades of migratory labor from Mexico to the US
From 1945 - 1964 about 4.5 Million workers entered the US
Rosie the Riveter
Symbol of patriotic women defense workers during the war
6 Million women entered the workforce
Build airplanes and other war machinery
WOMEN IN THE SERVICE
1ST time women are allowed to join the Army or Navy
WACS & WAVES
Selective Service Act - first peacetime draft ever - 1940
War Bonds - Savings bonds sold by the govt to pay for the war
Borrowing $ from our citizens
Deficit Spending - Borrowing money to spend more than received in taxes
Started by FDR with the New Deal, then during the war, and continued by every president since.