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LITHOSPHERE

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by

Wayne Marr Lazam

on 7 March 2014

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Transcript of LITHOSPHERE

LAYERS
BY PHYSICAL COMPOSITION
DIASTROPHISM
EARTHQUAKE
- Study of rocks*
LAYERS
CRUST
Upper layer
Mostly solid rock
Cool, rigid, and brittle
Regions:
Continental Crust
Oceanic Crust
LITHOSPHERE
Thank you for listening! :)
Group Members:
Gepilano, Christine G.
Lazam, Wayne Marr B.
Agpay, Claire Abigail M.
Margallo, Angelyne A.
Araya, Carla D.
Phillips, Darren H.
Crust
Mantle
Core

MOHOROVICIC
DISCONTINUITY
It is the boundary
between the crust and the mantle.
MANTLE
Most of the Earth's mass
About 2,800 km thick
About 3,700 degree Celsius (temperature)
About 1.37 million atmospheric pressure
It is the boundary between
the mantle and the outer core.
Innermost part of the earth
About 3,500 km thick
Made almost entirely metals

CORE
OUTER CORE
2,300 km thick
Between 4000-5000 degree Celsius
Lithosphere (Rock Sphere)
Asthenosphere (Weak Sphere)
Mesosphere
Core
Under the lithosphere; top layer of the upper mantle
Believed to have a plastic behavior due to its ability to flow
Rocks are exposed to high pressure and temperature.
Movement of tectonic plates in this layer causes seismic activities (volcanic eruptions and earthquakes).
Cold, outer rigid shell of the earth's structure
Consists of crust and the upper mantle
Broken into large pieces (plates)
Inner most layer
Change in both physical and chemical composition
Circulation of liquid outer core leads to magnetic field probably due to heat loss and the earth's rotation.
Region between asthenosphere and the core-mantle boundary.
High pressure compensates high temperature effects; thus, resulting to a stronger and firmer layer.
Igneous Rocks
Sedimentary Rocks
Organic Rocks
Metamorphic Rocks
ROCK CYCLE
IGNEOUS
These are hot, molten rocks (magma) that are crystallized and solidified.
EXTRUSIVE
or
VOLCANIC ROCKS
These are magma inside the Earth that are solidified and hardened.
These are made up of loose earth materials (sediments)
These are preexisting rocks that go through mineralogical and structural changes effected by high temperature and pressure.
CLASTIC
ROCKS
These are formed from clasts or broken fragments of preexisting rocks and minerals.
These are formed from precipitation or solidification of minerals, usually from seawater or lake water.
FOLIATED
These are minerals
rearranged into visible layers.

Example
:
Slate, schist, gneiss
These are sedimentary rocks composed primarily of animal and plant remains.
DIASTROPHISM
Movement of the solid part of the Earth
Results in deformation of Earth's crust
movement may be strong and sudden that we feel the shaking of Earth's surface (earthquake)

DIRECTION
OF FORCES
Upward
. It causes the widespread rising of the crust.
Downward
. It causes the widespread sinking of the crust.
Horizontal
Compression
. The landmasses crumple and slip against each other.
Tension
. The landmasses move away from each other.
Effects
of Forces
on the
Landmasses
Causes of Diastrophism
Causes of Diastrophism
THEORY OF
ISOSTASY*
As vertical adjustments take place, landmasses are folded, buckled and thrusted.

Simple analogy of isostasy is Icebergs (based on Archimedes Principle). This explains why the wearing down of mountains and the filling up of the ocean basins have not resulted on a leveled surface over the whole earth.
CONTRACTION THEARY
Earth Shrinks due to cooling and great pressure squeezes parts of earth into smaller volume. Gravity draws crust inward, causing it to buckle, bend, and trench.
CONVECTION
THEORY
Convection currents are set in the crust and heat comes from the disintegration of radioactive elements. Rocks become plastic and moves upward, causing the surface to bulge due to the accumulation of heat.
CONTINENTAL DRIFT
THEORY
Proposed by Alfred Wegener, he hypothesized that there was a gigantic super continent 200 million years ago (he named
Pangea
, meaning 'All earth'). Pangea broke up into smaller super continents called Laurasia and Gondwanaland during Jurassic period.
EARTHQUAKE
- Shaking of ground from seismic waves through large sections of earth's rocky outer shell
- Occurs when stored energy within earth in the form of strain in rocks is suddenly released
- Energy is transmitted through earthquake (seismic) waves.
BODY WAVES
These are waves that travel below earth's surface.

Kinds
:
Primary waves (P-waves)
- Longitudinal waves
- Similar in feature with sound waves
- Travels fast through solids, liquids, and gases
Secondary waves (S-waves)
- Slower than p-waves
- Travels only on solid
- Transverse in nature
- Can take on different surface depending on the propagational direction
Surface waves
- Relatively slow
- Generally create a rolling or swaying motion.

Classification of Earthquakes
Shallow-Focus
- Occurs from surface to 70km deep
Intermediate-focus
- Occurs in the upper part of the mantle, from 70-350km deep
Deep-focus
- Occurs in the lower part of the upper mantle, from 350 - 700km

About 85% of all earthquakes are shallow-focus earthquakes and only 3% are deep-focus earthquakes.

How can earthquakes be detected?
Seismograph
. An instrument that records movements of the earth.
Seismogram
. An analysis of records of earthquake vibrations to help determine the focus and the center of the shock.

Epicenter
. The point directly above the focus.
Intensity
. The measure of surface damage by an earthquake. This can be expressed by modified Mercalli Intensity Scale.
Magnitude
. The earthquake-associated energy of vibrations that are reported by media using
Richter Scale*

Rossi-Forel Scale of Earthquake Intensities
. A scale used by PAG-ASA.
Harmful Effects of Earthquake
Violent ground motion (collapse buildings and other structures)
Landslides
Tsunami
Regional/ Local uplift or subsidence
VOLCANISM
TYPES OF VOLVANO
BY VOLCANIC ACTIVITY
Tallest volcano with a stratified structure
Made up of alternating layers of cinders, ash, and lava flows.
LITHOSPHERE
From the Greek word "Litho" which means rocky
Solid outermost shell of a rocky planet
Includes the crust and the uppermost portion of the top layer of the mantle
About 100 kilometers thick and has the ability to glide over the rest of the upper mantle
Zone of earthquake, mountain building, volcanoes and continental drift
This exist from the base of the crust downward to a depth of about 670 km.
Extends from 670 - 290 km
Hot and plastic
The high pressure in this layer causes the formation of minerals that are different from those of the upper mantle.
CONTINENTAL
CRUST
Composed of
silica-alumina-rich rock (sial)
Composed of
silica-magnesia-rich material (sima)
BY CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
OCEANIC
CRUST
LITHOSPHERE
ROCK SPHERE
GUTENBERG
DISCONTINUITY
ASTHENOSPHERE
WEAK SPHERE
These are magma coming out of Earth's surface that gradually cools and solidifies.
MESOSPHERE
CORE
PETROLOGY
* Naturally occurring solid substances made up of one or more minerals
TYPES
ROCKS
ROCKS
SEDIMENTARY
ROCKS
INNER CORE
1,200 km thick
shaped like a ball
between 5000-700 degree C
INTRUSIVE
or
PLUTONIC ROCKS
CHEMICAL
ROCKS
KINDS
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
KINDS
IGNEOUS ROCKS
ORGANIC
ROCKS
Examples:
- Sandstone
- Siltstone
- Shale

Examples:
- Rock gypsum
- Rock salt
- Chert or flint
Examples:
- Coal
- Peat
Active
. Erupting or has recently erupted (e.g. Mayon Volcano, Mount Apo)

Dormant
. Activity stops for a considerable time. (e.g. Mount Pinatubo)

Extinct
. There is proof that it will not erupt again.
UPPER
MANTLE
LOWER
MANTLE
METAMORPHIC
ROCKS
TYPES
METAMORPHIC ROCKS
NON-FOLIATED
This is a metamorphic rock that
does not show any layering or banding.

Example
:
Marble, quartzite, serpentinite

FOLDING
This occurs when a part
of the crust
crumples and bends
upward and downward.
Parts of a fold
:
Crest
Trough
FAULTING
This occurs when the crust is fractured due to unequal forces acting on opposite directions.
NORMAL FAULTS
Tensional forces pull the crust apart.
The forces move the crust vertically apart and are called dip-slip fault since the displacement (slip) is along the tilt (dip) of the fault line.
REVERSE FAULTS
AND THRUST FAULTS
These are due to strong compressional forces, being associated to transform faults.
STRIKE-SLIP
or LATERAL FAULTS
Crust blocks move horizontally past each other.

TRENCHING
The large masses of rocks in the crust slide and slip against each other due to forces coming from different directions
* Balancing of forces between the gravity on the mass of a section of earth and resistance of the sinking mass into the mantle of the earth
* A scale developed by Charles Richter
Has a steep cone
Made up of piles of loose cinders red or black in color that have been expelled from a vent
Mudflows obstructing rivers could deprive channels of normal runoff.
Poisonous gases (e.g. sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrochloric acid, methane, and carbon monoxide) come out in large amounts which is harmful to life.
Lava flows ruin life, destroy structures, and contaminate water.
Awareness of dangers that it pose to lives.
Prepare all necessary things to bring once evacuation is needed.
Store much food, water, light sources and batteries for emergency.
Prepare mask or any cover to your nose and mouth during ash falls.
Avoid low-lying places because lava flows and mudflows are more likely to pass them.
Seek cover in case of ash fall or rock fall.
Cover mouth and nose to avoid breathing in ashes.
Close all doors and windows to avoid ashes from entering the house.
Always stay indoors.
Stay in the evacuation center until further instructions.
This covers all kinds of volcanic activities, including processes that cause magma rise and their movement on earth.
This is a mountain or hill formed around a vent in the earth’s crust through which lava, pyroclastic materials, and hot gases are spewed out.
VOLCANISM
VOLCANO
Lowest volcano
Wide, gently sloping cones made of solidifed lava flow
ERUPTIONS
SHIELD VOLCANO
ERUPTIONS
COMPOSTITE VOLCANO
ERUPTIONS
CINDER CONE VOLCANO
VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS
HARMFUL EFFECTS
PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES
BEFORE EARTHQUAKE
PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES
DURING AND AFTER
EARTHQUAKE
CLASSIFICATIONS
FAULTS
Full transcript