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Earth's Interior

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by

Alicia Bartels

on 6 October 2015

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Transcript of Earth's Interior

Mantle
Below the crust, at a depth of 5-40 kilometers, is solid material of the
mantle
, a layer of hot rock.
Earth's Interior
From the inside, out!
Finding Indirect Evidence
Journey to the Center of the Earth
The Crust
The Core
Earth's Magnetic Field
When geologists study Earth's interior, they use an indirect method called seismic waves.
The core is the center of the Earth and consists of two parts:
a liquid outer core
solid inner core
Currents in the liquid outer core force solid inner core to spin faster than the rest of the planet and create Earth's magnetic field.
Temperature:
As you go farther into the Earth's surface, it gets hotter and hotter.
20 meters down the surrounding rock will be warmer.
For every 40 meters that you descend from that point, the temperature rises 1 degree Celsius.
The
crust
is a layer of rock that forms Earth's outer skin.
When earthquakes occur, they produce
seismic waves
. Geologists record these and see how they travel through the Earth, depending on the speed of the waves.
Pressure:
Father down, there will be an increase in pressure.
Pressure
is the force pushing on a surface or area. The weight of the rock above causes the pressure inside the Earth to increase as you go deeper.
Three main layers make up Earth's interior: the crust, the mantle, and the core. Each layer has its own conditions and materials.
You'll find rocks and mountains, but this also includes soil and water that cover large parts of Earth's surface.
Much thinner than what lies beneath it. Very similar to the paper-thin skin of an onion or the shell of an egg.
It is thinnest beneath the oceans and thickest under high mountains, ranging between 5 to 40 kilometers thick.
Two types of crust:
Oceanic crust
: crust beneath the ocean; consists of mostly dense rocks (ie: Basalt); thinnest crust
Continental crust
: crust that forms the continents; consists mainly of less dense rocks (ie: Granite); thickest crust.
The crust and uppermost part of the mantle are very similar and form a rigid layer called the
lithosphere
.
The lithosphere averages about 100 kilometers thick.
Farther down, start to encounter hotter material that is increasing pressure, making this new material less rigid and bendable, more like plastic. This layer is called the
asthenosphere
.
The asthenosphere and its contents are soft and flow very slowly, and conclude the mantle making it 3,000 kilometers thick.
Metals iron and nickel make up both parts of the core.
Outer Core:
layer of molten metal that surrounds the inner core, and, despite the great amount of pressure, acts like a lick liquid.
Inner Core:
dense ball of solid metal, and, because of the pressure, the atoms of iron and nickel are packed so much they cannot spread out and become liquid.
Both cores make up 1/3 of Earth's mass and 15% of its volume, and are slightly smaller than the moon.
Makes Earth act like a bar magnet, and it why the Earth has poles: Geographic poles and Magnetic poles.
Full transcript