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Non Governmental Organisations

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Tanya Puravankara

on 5 January 2014

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Transcript of Non Governmental Organisations

Academic Perspectives
NGOs - Impasse for development by Tanya Puravankara, Kiranpreet Bains and AbdelRahim Kadok

What are NGOs?
Marxist Views
NGOs around the world
History
Up until 1970s
Late 1970s
1990s
2000s
NGOs
- Service Provision
- Emergency Relief

Roll back of SAPs
and neo-liberal practices
"Good governance" agenda

State at centre stage
The rise of neo-liberal ideology

The NGO boom
The state is seen to have failed to deliver development because “it relies on bureaucratic mechanisms and seeks enforced compliance with government decisions, that are made by experts according to technical principles and criteria following policy objectives set by top officials (Uphoff, 1993, p610)
NGOs and the State
Norman Uphoff
Accountability and Sustainability of the NGO model
BIG D
Need for the state
NGO
"Band-aid" Solution
State Reform
Participation in governance

Politics of inclusion
Long term solutions and sustainability
Institutional
accountability
little d
seeks development through a change in political structure
Project based development, based on service provision
Case Study of Ethiopia
NGOs and the world
History
Civil society in Ethiopia
“Untrained staff, and limited exposure to the non-profit world, many demonstrated minimal comprehension of their proper role” (Clark,2000,6).
Relief to development shift
Field Work Experience
Relief
Development
NGOs vs. class inequalities
Conclusion
NGOs foster a new type of cultural and economic colonialism and dependency.
Projects are designed, or at least approved, according to “guidelines” and priorities of the imperial centres or their institutions.
They are administered and “sold” to communities. Because of that, people perceived NGOs are local agents of imperialism.
Massive foreign funding, often from Western governments, may add to this picture.

NGOs vs. the state

Undermining Nationalization .
Undermine Sovereignty.
Weakening of Power Structure.
Westernization.
Zapatista Movement - Mexico

Oppose Neo-Liberal Agenda.
Oppose Political System In Mexico.
Revolution.


NGOs versus Socio-political movements

Challenges facing the NGO sector in Ethiopia
Viability
No government support
Lack of resources
Little or no funding
Background
The FFHC started up in Ethiopia in 1985.
It was set up in Ethiopia to help reduce the effects of famine and drought.
1993 - The TGE set new regional boundaries.
The problems were highlighted by the evaluative missions of 1988 and 1991.
Problems
Not all of FFHC's programmes were failures in Ethiopia.
FFHC credit scheme encouraged the rich to get richer.
'Trickle down' effect didn't occur.
Conclusion
FFHC was achieving only short term aims not long term aims.
Participation was not full implemented.
Farmers became too dependent on FFHC programmes.
Bibliography
Neo Liberal Ideologies & NGO
Neoliberal Agenda
Weakening of the left
Trojan Horse
NGO-ization of everything
Kenneth Roberts in Deepening Democracy (1998) argues that class inequality has developed in civil participation.

A strong class bias.

Reaffirm existing class inequalities.
Ahmed, S., Potter, D., (2006) NGOs in International Politics. Kumarian press.
Banks, N. and Hulme, D. (2012) The role of NGOs and civil society in development and poverty reduction. [online] The University of Manchester. Available from:<http://www.bwpi.manchester.ac.uk/resources/Working-Papers/bwpi-wp-17112.pdf > [Accessed 1 November 2012].
Bebbington, J et al (2006), “NGOs, civil society and accountability: making the people accountable to capital”, Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 19:3, 319-348.
Carrol, T (2012), “Introduction: Neo-liberal development policy in Asia beyond the Post-Washington consensus”, Journal of contemporary Asia, 42:3, 350-358.
Carroll, T (2012), “Working on, through and around the state: The deep marketization of development in the Asia-Pacific”, Journal of contemporary Asia, 42:3, 378 -404.
Clark, J (2002), Civil society, NGOs, and development in Ethiopia: A snapshot view, Washington: The International Bank for reconstruction.
Edwards, M and Hulme, D (1997), Making a difference: NGOs and development in a changing world, Great Britiain:Earthscan Publications Limited.
Ibester, K et al., (2011) The Paradox of Democracy in Latin America, Ten Country Studies of Division and Resilience. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Kanji, N and Lewis, D (2009), Non-governmental organisations and development, Oxon: Routledge.
Petras, J ., (1997) Imperialism and NGOs in Latin America [online] Available at http://www.petras.lahaine.org/?p=102.
Roy, A., (2012) Capitalism: A Ghost Story [online] Available at <http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?280234>
Weber, Heloise (2002), “The imposition of a global development architecture: the example of microcredit”, 28:03, 537 – 555.
Zaidi, S. A. (1999). NGO Failure and the need to bring back the state. Journal of International Development. 5 May. 11(2), 259-271.


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