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Mammals

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by

Evonne Nguyen

on 11 June 2013

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Transcript of Mammals

Body
Fun Facts
Fun Facts:
Mammals R us
Impact on Humans
over 4, 200 species
bats are the only flying mammal and they can live up to 20-30 years
a giraffe's tongue is 20 inches long; they use it to clean their ears
beavers can hold their breath for up to 15 minutes
more drivers kill deers than hunters do

zoos and tourist attractions
food
pets
circus
Taxonomy
There are 3 main subclasses of mammals:
Monotremes
Placental Mammals
Marsupials
Monotromes
Monotromes lay eggs with leathery shells and their milk comes from belly pores.
- Ornithorhynchidae: Platypuses
- Tachyglossidae: Echidna,
Anteaters
Placental Mammals
Placental Mammals' young mature in the uterus by gaining nutrients through the placenta.
- The placenta is a flattened organ which is attached to the young by an umbilical cord.
- There are nearly 4,000 species of Placental Mammals.
Group Description
Mammary Glands
This is a unique feature to mammals only
Mammary glands are sweat glands that secrete milk
Environment & Ecology
Bengal Tigers
Trophic Level
The milk is used to nurse young
3rd level consumers
top of the food chain
Carnivores
mainly prey on deer, pigs, antelopes and buffalo
Glands are found in both sexes, however they stop development in males and continue in females.
Environment
Asia, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Burman
Grasslands, subtropical and tropical rainforest, scrub forests, we and dry deciduous forest an mangroves
Made of a system of ducts surrounded by glandular tissue which secrete the milk
Placental Mammals Cont'd
Mammary Glands
Orders:
Unique Trait:
The basic components of a mammary gland are alveoli and milk- secreting cuboidal cells.
Unique Trait:
Examples of Orders:
Hair
Hair is another unique trait that only mammals have
A coat of hair usually has two kinds of hair.
Marsupials
There are long guard hairs which cover shorter insulation hairs
The actual hair strand is made up of a protein called keratin
Functions of Hair
Hair is used in many mammals for insulation as well as to keep warm
Placentas
Monotromes
live everywhere because they are so diverse
1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, 3rd level consumers
Hair can be waterproofing, with aquatic mammals it can prevent water from getting to the skin
found mainly in Tasmania and Australia
only one marsupial in North America
opossum
For some animals, hair provides camouflage
Hair provides protection, for example eyelashes can detect potentially harmful substances to the eye
Live in Australia and New Guinea
dig burrows for shelter
2nd level consumers
- Primates: Monkeys, lemurs, apes, people
- Carnivora: cat, bears, weasels, pinnipeds
- Insectivora: hedgehogs, shrews, moles
- Rodentia : rats, hamsters, mice, squirrels
- Cetacea: whales, dolphins
placental mammals
Marsupial
Anatomy and Physiology
Body Symmetry & Skeletal Support
Unique Traits:
How do mammals fulfill their basic needs?
Respiratory System
In mammals, respiration takes place through the lungs
Mammals need high levels of oxygen to maintain a high metabolism
Examples of Orders:
- Most Marsupials have pouches.
- Marsupials have a shorter gestation time and give birth at an earlier stage than placental mammals.
Circulatory System
- Didelphimorphia: Opossums
- Microbiotheria: Monito del Monte
- Dasyuromorphia: Tasmanian Wolf (extinct)
- Diprotodontia: Kangaroos, Wombats, etc.
Mammals have four chambered hearts each with a left and right atrium and a left and right ventricle
Evolution of Mammals
The left and right ventricle are completely separated so oxygenated and deoxygenated blood are completely seperate
The first mammals appeared on the fossil record 210 million years ago.
Early mammals were small, nocturnal, hairy, and insectivorous.
70 million years later, Marsupials and Placental mammal evolved.
endoskeleton
Unique to mammals
Nervous System
Trophic Categories
1. Insectivores: eat insects and other small invertebrates; ex. moles and shrews

2. Herbivores: eat plants; ex. rabbits and deer

3. Carnivores: eat animals; ex. foxes and lions
4. Omnivores: eat both plants and animals; ex. racoons and most primates
bilateral symmetry
Reproductive
System
Seperate sexes
Reproduce Sexually
Sperm and egg meet inside the oviduct of the female.
The oviduct is a tube which the egg passes from an ovary.
terrestrial and aquatic
After fertilization occurs in the oviduct, all mammals go through gestation.
Gestation is the period of development for the offspring.
The length of gestation for each mammal depends on the species.
All Mammals
All Mammals Cont'd
called the dentary because it holds teeth
lower jaw is made of one bone that attaches directly to the skull
ears have an unique arrangement of 3 bones in the middle ear: incus, malleus, and the stapes
skull: braincase, rostrum (snout and upper jaw), lowerjaw
Teeth
four types: canines, incisors, premolars,
have specialized teeth adapted to their diet
and molars
Placental Mammals And Marsupials
Placental mammals have a longer gestation time than Marsupials.
Due to this, the offspring of placental mammals are more advanced, and more likely to be born with open eyes, hair, etc.
After gestation, Placental Mammals and Marsupials give birth to live offspring and feed their young with milk. Marsupials stay in their mother's pouches.
canines: stab and pierce prey
premolars/molars: slice and shear meat from the bones or crush and grind
incisors: pincers for insect prey
Human Impact on Mammals
Monotremes
Monotremes' gestation period is even shorter than that of Marsupials.
Because of this, Monotremes lay eggs instead of live offspring.
After their young hatch, Monotremes also feed them with milk.
habitat destruction
food
fashion
poaching
Digestive System
Carnivore Digestive System
Digestive System in Insectivores
Insectivores eat small invertebrates and insects.
Diet digests easily
Short digestive system
Complete digestive system
Digestive system in Nonruminant Herbivores
Herbivores feed on vegatation
Absorption of nutrients and digestion starts in the stomach.
Bacteria in the cecum break down cellulose
Mammals have a four- chambered heart because of their metabolic rate.
When body temperature increases, the surface of the skin gets more blood than usual
Heat is transferred to the skin and then lost because of radiation.
When body temperature goes back down not as much blood is delivered to heat is lost
Mammals have highly developed brains

The cerebral cortex is the highly folded outer layer of the cerebrum to add more surface area
The cerebral cortex is responsible for conscious activities, memory, and learning
The cerebellum is responsible for balance and coordinating movement.

It has developed more and more throughout the evolution of animals because it allows animals to have precise motor movements.
Mammals have the ability to carry out complex behaviors like retaining information
Strong senses are very diverse in mammals

Some mammals, like humans have keen vision while dogs have a very good sense of smell
Overview of Mammal's Digestive System
Ruminant Herbivores
Ruminant herbivores digest their food partially, then regurgitate the semi-digested food known as cud and chew it again.
Have bacteria in their cecum to break down cellulose.
Have large 4 chambered stomachs
Diaphragm
Mammals are the only animals with a diaphragm
The diaphragm is a sheet of muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity

When it contracts, the chest cavity expands because air is going into the lungs where oxygen diffuses into the blood

When it relaxes the air is exhaled
Endothermy
Produce body heat internally
Heat is produced by a high metabolic rate
When body temperature is too high, sweat glands are triggered and when sweat evaporates it cools the skin
Mammals can regulate their internal temperature to retain homeostasis and it enables them to live in a variety of environments
Functions of Hair (cont.)
Hair can also be used for signaling
Mammals need a large amount of energy through the breakdown of food in order to maintain an endothermic metabolism.
Omnivores and herbivores have longer digestive tracts and a larger cecum because they consume plant material.
Smaller mammals must hunt and constantly consume food in order to satisfy their metabolism because they have high metabolic rates.
closed system
Cecum does not play a function for their digestion.
Mammals
By: Jaimie Lo, Neha Rajkumar, and Evonne Nguyen
Excretory System
Overview
Kidneys play a huge role in mammals' excretory systems.
All mammals have 2.
Waste leaves the body as urine.
Kidneys
Kidneys:
maintain homeostasis
excrete meatbolic waste
filter urea from the blood, while still keeping the amount of body fluids necessary.
Because of this, animals can live in deserts.
first level consumers and second level consumers
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