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Underwater Archaeology: Ancient Egyptian Artifacts from the Kingdom of Queen Cleopatra VII
Transcript of Underwater Archaeology: Ancient Egyptian Artifacts from the Kingdom of Queen Cleopatra VII
History & Methodology of Underwater Archaeology
Nautical Archaeology Society (NAS) 1972 U.K.
Underwater Archaeology: NAS Guide to Principles & Practice (1992)
An underwater archaeological guide on the fundamental and theoretical parameters needed in order to undertake fieldwork whilst maintaining ethical standards, a commitment to the research, conservation.
a science involved with the identification of artifacts & their cultural interpretation of past ways of life. Underwater Archaeology subfield.
The main purpose of underwater archaeology is the commitment to the research, conservation, and preservation of cultural heritage because the past shapes the future. Most discoveries accidental by recreational divers.
The migration of populations, practical & technological developments, and the structure of past civilizations.
Long-term care by museums and repositories of retrieved artifacts and records.
Collection of Evidence:
Underwater Archaeology intersects with forensics since sites are treated like crimes scenes such as artifact position, association, recognition, and description of topology.
Make sense of evidence and its historical relevance (possible association to primary documents). In situ photograph—aerial—(Nikonos V—15mm lens), video recording, pre-printed form ‘pro-forma,’ archaeological dive log, ethnography, scaled drawing (1:10).
Global Positioning System (GPS), Grid, Circular, Corridor search methods, Sonar, Transceiver (echo-sounder), Electronic Positioning (EDF).
Scuba gear, Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV’s) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AV’s), airlift, water dredge, water jet.
‘desk-based assessment’ geographical knowledge of archaeological site, surrounding environment (security), legal status (licenses and permits), and justification of project (funding).
International Salvage Law: Rhodian Maritime Code 900 B.C. ‘finders keepers’ at sea-bed and/or high seas.
Profile of the Ptolemaic Kingdom & Dynasty.
Ptolemaic Dynasty (332-30B.C.) Amalgamation of Graeco-Macedonian elite or Egyptian cultural milieu.
Crowning of Alexander The Great (356–323 BC)
at the temple of Ptah located in Memphis assuming the mantle of Pharaoh and was given divine status by the Egyptian people.
Capital city of Alexandria (331 B.C.)
founded for governing purposes.
World famous library transforming Alexandria in to the center of Greek culture modeled after Plato and Aristotle.
He was a military general for Alexander The Great. Appointed as governor of province, but son after assumed kingship after coup of Alexander’s remains in route to the royal necropolis at Aegae and retaining Macedonian tradition and notion of ‘sacred family’.
Egyptian military and navy Hellenistic counterpart for maintaining prestige and status but rise & decline like barometer of the political fortunes of the Greek world (i.e.,Battle of Salamis (306B.C.), 6 Syrian Wars (285-246B.C.)
a thing of nuances, alliances, protectorates, and friendly factions.
Precedence when he married his full sister Arsinoe II an error. Amalgamation of Mythology of Isis and Osiris and/or Zeus and Hera. Marriage practices for practical purposes such as control of assets and lineage.
Land and the Nile lucrative facilitating large-scale engineering projects (i.e., Pharos Lighthouse & Koptos road from Nile valley to Read Sea).
The Rosetta Stone (196B.C.)
written in classical Egyptian (Hieroglyphs), Demotic and Greek. Jean-François Champollion (1822).
Afterlife, Apocalyptic Literature, and Hierarchical Society.
Dynastic Schism (murder plots & Ptolemy XII), the Alexandrian mob (internal strife, religious xenophobia & nationalism), and increased Roman intervention (fiscal & wheat).
Biography of Cleopatra VII Philopator.
Cleopatra VII (69-30B.C.)
Born in Alexandria to Ptolemy XII and Ptah priestess was an accomplished diplomat, naval commander, administrator, linguist, hunter & skilled equestrian, author, and became the only woman of antiquity to became sole ruler of Egypt with the aid of Julius Caesar (100-44B.C) after Pompey The Great.
partners were carefully crafted state policy worthy of her lineage.
“For her beauty, as we are told, was in itself not altogether incomparable, nor such as to strike those who saw her; but converse with her had an irresistible charm, and her presence, combined with the persuasiveness of her discourse and the character which was somehow diffused about her behavior towards others, had something stimulating about it. There was sweetness also in the tones of her voice; and her tongue, like an instrument of many strings, she could readily turn to whatever language she pleased..." Plutarch, Life of Antony (XXVII.2-3)
Cleopatra devoted to Egypt and stabilized economic turmoil Ptolemy XII.
Cleopatra 1st state visit 46B.C. confirmed as allied monarch. 2nd ‘Ides of March’ 44B.C. Caesarian's claim to power.
Gaius Octavius (63-14 A.D.)
Emperor Augustus 27B.C. ‘Pax Romana’ (Roman Peace)
Mark Antony (83–30 B.C.)
Disaster of Parthian expedition (36 B.C.) Suicide
Declaration of War:
Political Dispute vs. Family Quarrel that culminated in the Sea Battle of Actium (31B.C.).
'Make it Happen'
Underwater Archaeological Sites, Artifacts & Museum
European Institute of Underwater Archaeology (IEASM), Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, Arts and Exhibitions International (AEI), and National Geographic. HILTI foundation.
Franck Goddio, French underwater archaeologist & director of IEASM. Yearly expedition (6 weeks) in search of Cleopatra. International team has uncovered Royal Palace and the ancient cities of Canopus & Heracleion. Slipped into the sea after recurring earthquakes and tsunamis circa 8th cent. A.D.
Mediterranean Underwater Museum:
Currently under construction (since 2008). Recreation diving of archaeological remains such as columns, capital columns, colossal granite & limestone blocks. Tunnels constructed within the museum for non-divers, but face challenges such as sediment, pollution, and visibility.
Collection on display at Philadelphia’s Franklin Institute
. Cleopatra Exhibition currently on U.S. tour. National Geographic website for tour dates.
By Monica Gonzalez
Bowens, Amanda. “Underwater Archaeology: NAS guide to Principles and Practice.” 2nd Ed. The Nautical Archaeology Society. 11 Aug. 2008. Web. 28 Oct. 2013. http://library.sdsu.edu/
“Cleopatra: The Search for the Last Queen of Egypt.” The History Place. Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, 2012. Web. 28 Oct. 2013. Print. http://www.historyplace.com/specials/slideshows/cleopatra/
Roller, Duane W. “Cleopatra: A Biography.” New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
Shaw, Ian. “The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt.” New York: Oxford University Press,