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Transcript of Peer Appraisal
b. Asking their peers about them
c. Questioning them directly
Some behaviors that cannot be assessed by classical tests:
Skills: Speaking, listening, oral reading, performing lab experiments, drawing, playing musical instrument, dancing, gymnastics, work skills, study skills, and social skills
Social Attitudes: Concern for the welfare of others, respect for rules/laws, respect for the property of others, sensitivity to social issues, concern for social institutions, and desire to work toward social improvement
a. Observing students as they perform and describing or judging that behavior
Anectodal records are factual descriptions of the meaningful incidents and events that the teacher has observed.
Class: 4th Grade Pupil: Mary Johnson
Date: 4/25/94 Place: Classroom
Shortly before class was about to start, Mary showed me a poem that she had written about spring. It was a delightful poem, and I asked her if she wanted to read it to the class. She bowed her head and then nodded yes. She read the poem in a low voice, constantly looked down at the paper, moved her right foot back and forth, and pulled on the collar of her blouse. When she finished, Steve (in the back row) said, ‘I couldn’t hear it. Will you read it again louder?’ Mary said ‘no’ and sat down.
Mary enjoys writing poems, and they reflect considerable creative ability. However, she seems very shy and nervous in performing before a group. Her refusal to read the poem again seemed to be due to her nervousness.
Use of Anectodal Records ‘What can be assessed’ is not problematique. We should deal with ‘What should be assessed’ What Behaviors to Observe and Record 1. Confining our observations to those areas of behavior that cannot be assessed by other means
2. Limiting our observations of all students at any given time to only a few types of behavior
3. Restricting the use of extensive observations of behavior to those few students who are most in need of special help
Advantages and Limitations of Anectodal Records Advantage 1: They depict actual behavior in natural situations. ‘Actions speak louder than words’ has a direct application here.
Advantage 2: They facilitate gathering evidence on events that are exceptional but significant.
Advantage 3: They can be used with very young students and with students who have limited basic communication skills.
Limitation 1: Amount of time required to maintain an adequate system of records.
Limitation 2: Difficulty of being objective when observing and reporting student behavior.
Limitation 3: Obtaining an adequate sample of behavior.
Effective Use of Anectodal Records
1. Determine in advance what to observe, but be alert for unusual behavior.
2. Analyze observational records for possible sources of bias.
3. Observe and record enough of the situation to make the behavior meaningful.
4. Make a record of the incident as soon after the observation as possible.
5. Limit each anecdote to a brief description of a single incident.
6. Keep the factual description of the incident and your interpretation of it seperate.
7. Record both positive and negative behavioral incidents.
8. Collect a number of anecdotes on a student before drawing inferences concerning typical behavior.
9. Obtain practice in writing anecdotal records.
Student Judgments and Reports Teachers’ observations and judgments of student behavior are of special value in those areas in which the behavior is readily observable and the teachers have special competence to judge. In assessing the ability to conduct and interpret experimental data, the effectiveness of an essay or the quality of handwriting, for example, the teacher is unquestionably in the best position to make the judgment. Various aspects of personal-social development can be more effectively assessed by including peer ratings and other peer appraisal methods in the assessment program. The intimate interactions that occur among peers are seldom fully visible to an outside observer. Some differences between teacher judgment and peer judgment also can be expected because each is using different standards. Children’s criteria of social acceptability, for example, are apt to be quite different from teachers’ criteria. Through peer appraisal and self-report techniques are useful for understanding students better and guiding their learning, development, and adjustment, the results should not be used for making and reporting or in any manner that interferes with honest responses. Peer Appraisal In some instances, it is possible to have students rate their peers on the same rating device used by the teacher. The average of these rating is a good indication of how the group felt about the students’ performance. If we ask students to rate their classmates on a series of personal-social characteristics, each students will be required to fill out 30 or more rating forms. This becomes so cumbersome and time consuming that we can hardly expect the ratings to be diligently made. Some of the techniques are so simple that they can be used effectively with students at the primary school level. The guess-who technique is an example of this type of measure. Guess-Who Technique With this procedure, each student is presented with a series of brief behavior descriptions and asked to name those students who best fit each description. The descriptions may be limited to positive characteristics, or they may also include negative behaviors.
The following items, taken from a form for assessing sociability, are typical of the types of positive and negative description used.
1. Here is someone who is always friendly.
2. Here is someone who is never friendly.
Some teachers prefer to use only the positive behavior descriptions because of possible harmful effects of negative nominations on group morale. Teachers must make decisions for themselves, however, because they are the only one who can determine what the effects might be on their students. This technique is based on the nomination method of obtaining peer ratings and is scored by simply counting the number of mentions each student receives on each description. If both positive and negative descriptions are used, such as friendly and unfriendly, the number of negative mentions on each characteristic is subtracted from the number of positive mentions. This may not completely agree with the teacher’s impressions of the student, but it is significant information concerning personal-social development. In fact, one of the great values of this type of peer appraisal is that it makes the teacher aware of feelings and attitudes among students that were undetectable through direct observation. This nominating method is especially valuable for appraising personality characteristics, character traits, and social skills, but it is not limited to these areas. It is also useful in such areas as creativity, critical thinking, and problem solving. The main advantage of the guess-who technique is its usability. It can be administered in a relatively few minutes to students of all age levels, and scoring is a simple matter of counting the number of nominations received. Its main limitation is the lack of information it provides on the shy, withdrawn student. Such students are frequently overlooked when nomination methods are used. In effect, they have no reputation in their peer group and are simply ignored during the rating process. SELF-REPORT TECHNIQUES The personal interview:
The face to face contact has several advantages;
1-It is flexible.
2-Interviewers can observe interviewees.
3-Not only collecting information from interviewees but also sharing information with them.
Two serious problems:
1-Extremely time consuming.
2-The information gained is not standard from one person to another.
An inventory consists of a standart set of questions pertaining to some particular area of behavior,administered and scored under standart conditions.
The effective use of self-report inventories assumes that individuals are both willing and able to report accurately.
ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT -Obtaining measures of students’ attitudes toward certain classroom activities or laborotory experiences.
-Listing the activities or statements the students are expected to respond to and then devising some simple means of responding.
A form for measuring attitude toward mathematics activities at the lower primary level. -Directions: Indicate how much you agree or disagree with each statement by circling the appropriate letter(s).
KEY: SA-Strongly Agree
SA A U D SD 1.Sciense classes are interesting.
SA A U D SD 2.Science laboratory is dull and boring.
SA A U D SD 3.It’s fun working on science problems.
SA A U D SD 4.Class activities are good.
SA A U D SD 5.Reading the textbook is a waste of time.
SA A U D SD 6.The laboratory expirements are interesting.
SA A U D SD 7.Most class activities are monotonous.
SA A U D SD 8.I enjoy reading the textbook.
SA A U D SD 9.The problems we are studying are unimportant.
SA A U D SD 10.I’m not very enthusiastic about science.
Likert Scale for measuring attitude towards a science course
Five steps for the construction: 1. Write a series of statements expressing positive and negative opinions.
2. Select the best statements(at least 10).
3. List the statements,mixing up the positive and negative,and put the 5-point scale (SA A U D SD) to the left of each statement for easy marking.
4. Add the directions.
5. Prefer to drop the undecided category or expand the scale by adding the categories slightly agree and slightly disagree.
The scoring of a Likert scale:
- Favorable statements are weighted 5,4,3,2,1, going from SA to SD.
- Unfavorable statements are weighted 1,2,3,4,5, going from SA to SD
- An individual’s total score is the sum of the scores on all items.
Published Attitude Scales
Numerous published attitude scales are available for school use. For example, the Estes Attitude Scales(grades 3 through 12),designed to measure attitude toward school subjects.
- Give the students a list of types of books whether they like or dislike each type.
- The simple like-dislike response method can be expanded to more points.
- The students can rank items in order from like most to like least.
- A simple paired-Comparison procedure might be used to find out the students’ reading preferences.
- The number of Marks for each type of reading will indicate the students’relative preference.
- We can obtain an interest score for each individual student or the results fort the entire class
- We seldom encounter with fake responses.
Published Interest Inventories
-To be used in educational and vocational guidance.
-The Strong Interest Inventory, during the high school and college levels.
-291 items=244 (occupational scales)+30(basic interest scales)+6(personal style scales)
-Another Interest Inventory the Self-Directed Search(SDS) Career Explorer,during middle school and high school students.
The six dimensions (R)Realistic, (I)Investigative, (A)Artistic, (S)Social, (E)Enterprising and (C)Conventional.
-Not to confuse interest scores with measures of ability.
Personality Measures Classroom assessments of students’ personality characteristics and adjustment problems are probably best made through the use of anecdotal records, rating scales, and other observational and peer appraisal techniques. However, there are two types of personality measures that classroom teachers should know about: personality inventories and projective techniques. These are briefly described for general information only. Using them effectively requires special training in counseling or clinical psychology. Personality Inventories The typical personality inventory presents students with a series of questions like those used in a psychiatric screening interview. For example, an inventory might include items such as the following:
Do you daydream often?
Are you frequently depressed?
Do you have difficulty making friends?
Do you usually feel tired?
Responses to such questions are commonly indicated by circling yes or no.
Personality inventories vary considerably in the type of score provided. Some provide a single adjustment score, whereas others have separate scores for particular adjustment areas or for specific personality traits. All the limitations of the self-report technique tend to be accentuated in the personality inventory. First, the replies can be easily faked, and the threatening nature of many of the questions encourages presenting a distorted picture. Second, in addition to honesty, accurate responses require good self-insight, but this is the very characteristic that poorly adjusted individuals are apt to lack, as they are prone to excessive use of adjustment mechanisms that tend to distort their perceptions of themselves and their relations with others. Finally, the ambiguity of the items is also likely to distort the results. Such questions as ‘ Are you frequently depressed?’ do not mean the same thing to all individuals. Although some ambiguity may be desirable in these inventories, words such as frequently have such a broad range of meanings that error is likely to be introduced. Projective techniques
Projective techniques are another method of assessing personal-social adjustment with which the classroom teacher should be familiar. Because they generally require clinical training to administer and interpret, it is not expected that teacher will use them directly.
In contrast, with the highly structured personality inventory, projective techniques provide almost complete freedom of response. Typically, individuals are presented with a series of ambiguous forms or pictures and asked to describe what they see. Their responses are then analyzed to determine what content structure they have projected onto the ambiguous stimuli. Two of the best-known projective techniques are the Rorschach inkblot test and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). The Rorschach test consists of 10 inkblot figures on cards, and the TAT includes a series of pictures. These tests are usually administrated to one individual at a time, and the individual’s responses are recorded during the testing. Analysis of the results requires both systematic scoring and impressionistic interpretation, with emphasis on the total personality pattern revealed. Projective techniques are used primarily as part of complete clinical study of those individuals who are experiencing adjustment difficulties. THE END Hakan KELEŞ