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Transcript of Cardio-respiratory system
bring oxygen, water,and nutrients to the cells
take carbon-dioxide and other wastes away from the cells
maintain body temperature and hydration levels
Two closed circuits
55 % of blood volume is plasma - this is a yellowy liquid
containing water, nutrients, wastes, hormones, etc.
The other 45 % of blood volume is the blood cells which are roduced in the bone marrow :
* Red blood cells: contain haemoglobin ( which carries the oxygen).
* White blood cells: fight infection and disease.
* Platelets: are responsible for blood clotting.
Arteries: carry oxygenated blood away from the heart - strong, elastic, muscular walls.
Capillaries: allow the exchange of gases, nutrients, and wastes - smallest blood vessels, walls only one cell thick, semipermeable.
Veins: carry deoxygenated blood back to heart - thinner than arteries, less elastic, contain one-way valves.
Systemic circulation - circulation between the heart and body
Pulmonary circulation - circulation between the heart and lungs
prevents back flow of blood
Heart Rate (HR)
- increases linearly until the “steady state” for sub max exercise.
- will rise until max HR with increasing exercise intensity.
Stroke Volume (SV)
- increases as heart contracts more forcefully.
Cardiac Output (Q)
- cardiac output increases to steady state at constant pace or
linearly with increasing intensity up to exhaustion.
- increases as greater volumes of blood fill the arteries.
- diastolic remains fairly constant.
- 80-85% of cardiac output goes to the working muscles.
- decrease in blood flow to organs.
- increase to lungs
- increased coronary blood flow to supply O2 to heart muscle
Acute cardiovascular responses to exercise
Q= SV * HR
What happens to blood plasma when we exercise? What impact does this have on the system?
What mechanisms assist venous return?
7. These bronchi branch into bronchial tubes which then branch into bronchioles, which connect to the alveoli (air sacs)
THE PATHWAY OF OXYGEN THROUGH THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
1. Muscles have to be supplied with oxygen. Oxygen enters the respiratory system (in the air) via the mouth and/or nose during inhalation.
2. Inside the nose, blood vessels secrete mucus. This mucus and tiny cilia trap dust from the air
3. Air passes through the pharynx and at the end there are two openings – one to the larynx and the other one leads to the oesophagus
4. The air enters the larynx which is the beginning of the lower respiratory tract
5. The air then passes into the trachea (windpipe) where more cilia and mucus work to immobilise bacteria
6. The trachea branches into two bronchi (one to each lung)
It is in the alveoli that gaseous exchange/diffusion takes place.The oxygen in the alveoli diffuses through the semi-pemeable membrane and into the surrounding cappilaries. Carbon dioxide passes from the cappilaries into the alveoli.
Diffusion: the movement of gases from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure.
What effect does smoking and air pollution have on the alveoli of the lungs and thier ability to diffuse oxygen? What impact does this have on exercise participation?
- breathes air in from the environment.
- transfers oxygen into the blood.
- removes carbon-dioxide from the blood.
- returns air back to the environment.
- creates speech as air is breathed out over voice box ( larynx ).
Mechanics of breathing:
the diaphragm muscle contracts & flattens.
the intercostals raise the thorax & sternum out.
the chest cavity is enlarged & pressure reduced.
air is drawn in.
diaphragm relaxes & forms a dome shape.
the chest cavity is reduced.
the pressure is increased.
air is forced out.
Cardiac Output - Amount of blood ejected out of the left ventrical per minute (L/min)
Stroke Volume - Amount of blood pumped out of the heart per beat
Heart rate - Number of times the haert beats per minute (bpm)
responses to exercise
V = TV * RR
Ventilation - Amount of air breathed in or out in one minute (L/min)
Tidal Volume - the amount of air beathed in or ot per breath
Respiratory Rate - Amount of breaths per minute
Respiratory rate ( breaths per min )
- increases during physical activity
- 12 - 15 breaths per min (rest)
- 40 - 50 breaths per min (exercise)
Tidal volume ( size of breath )
- increases during physical activity
- 0.5 litres ( rest )
- 2.5 litres ( exercise )
Ventilation ( respiratory rate X tidal volume )
V = .5 litres X 12 breaths/min
V = 6 litres/min
V = 2.5 litres X 50 breaths/min
V = 125 litres
- diffusion from the alveoli into the blood.
- increases due to increase in blood flow and dilation of
capillaries surrounding the alveoli.
Oxygen uptake ( VO2 )
- the amount of oxygen used by the body for energy production
- increases as the body absorbs more oxygen and uses it to
produce more aerobic energy.
What happens when you get winded?
VO2 Max - The maximum amount of oxygen that can be taken in, transported, and utilised by the body in one minute (ml/kg/min)
Why do we need to have such a large surface area of alveoli?
What two practices can athletes engage in on order to increase their red blood cell count and hence improve their oxygen carrying capacity? Hint: one legal and one illegal.