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Australia, New Zealand, Etc.

Dan Priest

on 18 April 2015

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Transcript of Oceania

As the Maori lived in geographic isolation, performing arts such as the
traditional dance developed from their Polynesian roots, as did carving and weaving.

Maori tattooing would usually start at adolescence, and was used to celebrate important events throughout life.
The first tattoo marks the transition from childhood to adulthood
Instead of needles, the Maori people used knives and chisels, and the ink (burnt wood) was applied by means of incisions
The Pacific Islands are divided into three regions—Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia.

Micronesia — 2,000 small islands just east of the Philippines

Melanesia — stretches from New Guinea in the west to Fiji in the east

Polynesia — means “many islands,” and includes Tonga, Samoa, and the Hawaiian Islands
The settlers took the view that the indigenous Australians were nomads with no concept of land ownership, who could be driven off land wanted for farming or grazing and who would be just as happy somewhere else.
The loss of traditional lands, food sources, and water resources was usually fatal

When they were forced out of their land, cultural and spiritual practices necessary to the cohesion and well-being of the group could not be maintained.
With nowhere to meet each other for a chat or worship, societies fell apart
Captain Cook's observations of the Aboriginals were numerous and detailed; "these people may truly be said to be in the pure state of nature, and may appear to some to be the most wretched upon the earth; but in reality they are far happier than ... we Europeans."

Few attempts were made to understand the Aboriginals, their beliefs or their customs, or to understand how the Aboriginals had come to terms with an often-harsh environment.

Not surprisingly, the Aboriginals did not want to give up their way of life and enthusiastically embrace the ways of the newcomers, who in turn found their reluctance only further proof of the Aboriginals' inferiority.
Australia, New Zealand, Etc.
Papua New Guinea
New Zealand
New Zealand
Climate Comparison
The Cost
Substance Abuse
British Influence
An Example
The islands began to be settled at least 35,000 years ago.

Europeans first encountered the Pacific Islands in the 1500s.

By the late 1800s European powers such as Spain, Great Britain, and France controlled most of the Pacific Islands.
In 1769 Captain Cook explored the main islands of New Zealand.
British settlers began to arrive in the early 1800s.
Became a part of the British Empire in 1840.
Discovery of gold in 1861
Thousands of settlers came to the country
Tensions between the Maori and British settlers led to land wars.
Today: 15% of population
Gained its independence in the early 1900s.
Member of the British Commonwealth of Nations.
Too Many Cooks in the Kitchen
In other words, the British could claim the land and send whoever they liked there.
The Dutch were the first to "discover" Australia in 1606.

"Terra Australis Incognita" an "unknown land of the south."

The first Australian settlers arrived in Australia in 1788.

A British sailor called Captain Cook had arrived in Australia 18 years earlier and it had been decided that the country was "Terra Nullius" - literally "Land Empty."
Nine million people live in the Pacific Islands today:
Most Pacific Islanders are descendants of the region’s original setters.
Large numbers of ethnic Europeans and Asians also call the Pacific Islands home.
Most Pacific Islanders are Christian.

Many people still continue to practice traditional customs:
People continue to live in ancient villages.
Pacific Islanders practice customary art styles and traditional dances.
...And Now
The Pacific Islands
The combination of disease, loss of land and direct violence reduced the Aboriginal population by an estimated 90% between 1788 and 1900.
Maori Traditions
A pair of Aboriginal men came down to meet Cook’s men as they first set foot in Australia. The British offered gifts, which the Australians ignored. To be fair, a few trinkets probably didn’t seem that important at the time.
Of course, as it was, there were already people living in Australia.

The various tribes of the Aboriginal people of Australia had been living in the country for about 40,000 to 50,000 years:
Indigenous peoples
Ethnic minorities who have been marginalized as their historical territories became part of a state

You can imagine them not being too happy about a bunch of pale strangers turning up and taking their land.
Back to the Beginning
Substance abuse has remained a chronic problem for indigenous communities ever since.
Aborigines weren’t used to the alcohol, opium, and tobacco the settlers brought and had no tolerance. European society had used these things for hundreds of years and had “grown up” with them. Giving them to Aborigines was like giving them to children.
Another big problem for the indigenous Australians was that the new arrivals brought along sex and drugs.
When the American Revolution ended, Great Britain could no longer ship their convicts to New England. With crime getting out of hand in London (thanks unemployment and alcohol!) the British looked to Australia as a prisoner dumping ground.

Britain used Australia as a
penal colony
after Cook's discovery:
Settlement for convicts and prisoners
Free settlers arrive shortly after
Why Australia?
During the voyage there were 22 births (13 males, 9 females), while 69 people either died, were discharged, or deserted (61 males and 8 females).
Embarked at Portsmouth
Officials and passengers: 15
Ships' crews: 323
Marines: 247
Marines' wives and children: 46
Convicts (males): 582
Convicts (females): 193
Convicts' children: 14
Total embarked: 1420
Landed at Port Jackson
Officials and passengers: 14
Ships' crews: 306
Marines: 245
Marines' wives and children: 54
Convicts (males): 543
Convicts (females): 189
Convicts' children: 22
Total landed: 1373
The “First” Australians would be the following people:
Why Australia?
Over 80 years more than 165,000 convicts were transported to Australia.
Penal Colonies
Port Arthur in Tasmania was originally founded in 1830 as a timber station, but its isolation made it the ideal place for a prison, and it was quickly converted into Australia's largest and most notorious prison colony.
The British were worried that they hadn’t taken the gifts and fired a musket over their heads, which wounded the older man slightly, and he ran towards the huts.
Not a great start, really.
The word "aboriginal" means "the first" or "earliest known."
Nieuw Zeeland
The new land, first "discovered" by the Dutch, was similar to Zeeland (a province in Holland)
New Zealand includes two main islands, North Island and South Island.
North Island is covered with hills and coastal plains.
South Island has a large mountain range—the Southern Alps—fertile hills, and rich plains.
create many natural harbors on both islands.
Much of Australia has desert and steppe climates.
Temperatures are warm and rainfall is limited.
The coast has a temperate climate.
New Zealand has a marine climate.
New Zealand is mild and wet.
Much of the country receives plentiful rainfall and mild temperatures.
New Zealand
The Maori
New Zealand’s first settlers came from other Pacific islands around 1,200 years ago.
The Maori—descendants of the early settlers—settled throughout New Zealand.
The Maori were mainly fishers and hunters, but also farmed.
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