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HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
Transcript of HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
, which is essentially the interest in human beings and human welfare is as old as education itself.
Motivated by religious and superstitious beliefs, people have made efforts to help others, discover their potentialities, analyze their abilities, and even predict their future.
PSEUDO-SCIENTIFIC TECHNIQUES IN GUIDANCE
Non-specific guidance techniques are several of types. It may seem unbelievable, but people are still influenced by these practices as evidenced by their behavior, and they spend much money and time waiting for that lucky day. The element of the unexplained, the lucky and the unknown, or the one-step beyond has consciously or unconsciously influenced many of an individual's behavior and conduct.
GUIDANCE IN THE
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HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF
NUMEROLOGY is the predicting of future outcomes or events in terms of lucky or unlucky numbers.
Numerologists base their techniques on the "vibrations" surrounding us which are supposed to emanate from numbers. Actually, over-belief in numerology is part of our traditional patterns of thought.
Many believe that tragedy comes in threes and Friday the thirteenth is an unlucky day.
Astrology is associating one's fate with the course of the stars and other heavenly bodies.
An individual's personality traits are said to have relationships with the hour, day, month, and year of his birth.
There are many who read the horoscope readings in the newspapers for their lucky number during a particular week.
Graphology is analyzing one's character in terms of one's penmanship pattern.
An individual's personality is analyzed on the basis of intensity of strokes, the shape, size, and slant of the letters.
Palmistry is the belief that lines on one's hand tell the fate and destiny of an individual. It is also believed that the form and shape of one's hand reveal personality traits or types.
In Phrenology, an individual's traits, such as honesty, sympathy, love, mathematical ability, or musical talent, can be determined by the size of the head, the form of the forehead, and so on.
Physiognomy predicts personality traits through facial characteristics, bodily structure, size of the head, nose, eyes, ears, chin or the texture of the skin or hair.
THE RESULT OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY
Guidance is an outgrowth of several movements which are centered on human behavior patterns. First, in
, there appeared a movement -- an increased interest in the essence of man and in life experiences.
, which originally meant study of the mind, was therefore introduced.
Early in the twentieth century, educational psychology -- the science of psychology that deals with the development of an individual as he progresses from birth to old age -- was added to the teacher-training curriculum.
- called the "father" of the vocational guidance movement. He started the first organized guidance movement -- the movement to assist young people in Boston, Massachussetts.
Frank Parson's Principles of Counseling
1. It is better to choose a vocation than to hunt for a job.
2. Careful self-analysis should precede the choice of a vocation. The putting down on paper of a self analysis is of supreme importance.
3. The youth should also make a personal survey of the vocational field before deciding on a vocation that seems convenient.
4. The advice of men who have made careful study of men and vocations and of the conditions of success is helpful in deciding on a vocation.
Guidance became national in scope when the United States Office of Education established the Occupational Information and Guidance Service with Harry A. Jeager as director. The United States Government also made federal funds available to the different states. The guidance Pupil Personnel Service of the Office of Education. The United States Employment Service was set up by virtue of the Wagner-Payser Act of 1935.
, placement work is carried out for boys and girls who leave the elementary school, having reached the age of 14 or 15 -- the end of the compulsory education period -- or 16 years, the secondary-school-leaving-age. This is undertaken by the Ministry of Labor through the Juvenile Employment Exchange. The National Institute of Industrial Psychology in London, for example, provides counseling through career masters.
The schools in
are highly regimented, subject to strict supervision, and under the Ministry of Education in Paris. Guidance founded in 1930 and duly recognized the same services included the recording of results of interviews with parents, the counselor's answers to questions, and the results of physical examinations and of psychological and vocational aptitude tests.
The movement in
has a longer history than in other European countries. Today, elementary school pupils receive the most benefits in vocational guidance. However, Germany does not have a systematic training program for guidance workers. Counselors are appointed if they are successful in their respective occupations.
The entire philosophy behind the Russian educational system is
. Work activities are integrated in every school program in order to produce efficient and loyal workers. The vocational guidance bureau handles counseling programs. Each bureau serves a definite number of schools through arrangements among the guidance bureau, the Commissariat of Education, and agricultural and industrial enterprises sponsoring the schools.
In the Philippines, guidance is said to have both an accidental and incidental origin. Teachers and principles have assisted pupils to make choices and to make self-adjustments.
In 1932, a Psychological Clinic was started by
Dr. Sinforoso Padilla
and which concerned itself with cases of student discipline, as well as emotional, academic, and vocational problems.
In November, 1945, the first Guidance Institute was opened. The Bureau of Public Schools started to send teachers as
for observation and study of guidance services abroad.
In 1951, Congress proposed the establishment of a functional guidance and counseling program to help students select their course, activities, occupations, friends, future mates; to guide them in their work, both at home and in school; and to help them solve their personality problems.
In 1952, division superintendents of schools recommend the establishment of guidance services in the public schools.
In 1945, the National Teachers College was chosen by educators to be the site of the first Guidance Institutes.
In 1953, the Philippine Association of the Guidance Counselors was organized in order to study the needs, interests, and potentialities of our young people, and to establish a Testing Bureau.
Foremost among the colleges and universities which offer courses in guidance and which have established guidance centers are:
M.L. Quezon University
St, Scholastica College
National Teachers College
Philippine Women's University
Far Eastern University
University of Manila
University of Santo Tomas
University of the Philippines