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Environmental Health Triggers and Hazards

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Christin Palumbo

on 22 August 2016

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Transcript of Environmental Health Triggers and Hazards

We begin with two very different stories:

1. The story of the Calusa Indians

2. Bhopal, India, 1984, what would be known as the World’s Worst Industrial Disaster occurred at a pesticide chemical plant. 16.5 tons of pesticide gas was leaked resulting in 2,259 overnight deaths, approximately 16,000 total deaths and at least 550,000 injuries. Seven ex-employees have been charged and found guilty of negligence in the upkeep of the operating equipment and sentenced to 2 years of imprisonment and $2,000 fine in 2010 (maximum punishment in India).

Types of NCDs
What are Communicable Diseases?
Think of a disease that you can catch from someone else.
Combating the Disease
High School Health
Quarter 1

Environmental Health Triggers and Hazards
Story 1- Communicable Disease
Story 2- Non- Communicable Disease
Both stories had to do with
Environmental Health
- the various aspects of substances, forces, and conditions in and about a community that affect the health and well-being of the population.
is a flourishing condition or well-being, a complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not just the absence of disease.
is trouble or condition of the living animal or plant body or one of its parts that impairs the performance of a vital function
Air pollutants,
toxic wastes,
pesticides, etc

Jobs that contribute to Environmental Health
Environmental epidemiology- associations between exposure and development of diseases
Environmental engineering- reduce exposure
Preventive medicine- reduce disease development
Law- development of appropriate legislation to protect public health

What are Contributors
to the

Disease organisms present in
- food and water
-Insect and animal allergens

Noise, radiation

Access to safe and
sufficient health care

What is Environmental Health Sciences?
are pollutants or toxins in the air, water, soil , or food
Transferred to humans by
inhalation, ingestion or absorption
Produce adverse health affects

The study of those
in the environment that affect human health
What do you think the environmental issues are in this country?
Why do we need to research them?

Maybe most importantly- Why should we
about EHT?

to better understand
we need to know the

What are Non-Communicable Diseases?
Think of a disease that cannot be cured and cannot be given to someone else. What is it?
is a disease that cannot be spread from one person to another (it does not “communicate” with others)
Often these are diseases that are caused by changes within the body and can be
Most likely they have been influenced by an Environmental Trigger!

An illness due to specific infectious (biological) agent or its toxic products capable of being directly or indirectly transmitted from man to man, from animal to man, from animal to animal, or from environment (through air, water, food, etc) to man. You can “catch it.”

Diseases caused by germs or pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoa, parasitic worms and fungi)

Types of Communicable Disease
How is disease spreading?
- the element that must be present in order for the disease to occur
Chemical, biological, physical, nutrient, mechanical, social

The Environment Pulls the Trigger
Environmental Triggers Influence on Diseases
Explanation continued on next slide

Outdoor urban air pollution
Household air pollution (especially from inefficient cook stoves)
Toxic chemicals such as lead
Secondhand smoke

The spread of communicable disease can be increased or decreased depending on environmental triggers
Non-Communicable Diseases
Each year over 800,000 deaths are caused by polluted urban air and nearly 2 million by indoor air causes.
Common NCD and their Triggers!
Proper environmental management is the key to avoiding many NCDs
Example of governmental- Air quality regulations and information to the public from the Center for Disease Control (CDC)
The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized method of reporting air pollution. It measures pollutant concentrations in a community’s air to a number on a scale of 0 to 500. It lets the public determine whether air pollution levels are good, moderate, unhealthful— or worse. It is often seen on weather broadcasts on television

The CDC researches, collects, and distributes information concerning public health. They are a wealth of information!
NCD most prevalent diseases are cardiovascular disease, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes
Most of the NCDs caused by EHTs involves air quality.
NCDs kill more than 36 million people each year.

NCDs are by far the leading cause of death in the world. Representing 63% of all annual deaths.
Because most of the triggers are modifiable, governments and individuals can proactively attend to the associated dangers through policy and healthy lifestyle
Example of individual- apply sun screen!
Communicable Disease
Ebola is a Communicable Disease
What is it?
Triggers Influences on Communicable Disease Spread
-A lack of safe water, inadequate excreta disposal facilities, poor hygiene, poor living conditions and unsafe food can all cause diarrhea diseases. Theses diseases are major causes of suffering and death in an emergency situation.
-Climate can affect disease transmission in a variety of ways
-Distribution population size of a disease vectors can be heavily affected by local climate.
-Flooding after heavy rains can result in sewage overflow and widespread water contamination.
-There is some evidence to suggest that pathogens can be spread from one region to another along air streams or by wind

What is your responsibility?
Because NCDs are preventable through effective interventions it is your responsibility to know what the causes are and avoid them!

Don’t smoke or be around smoke!
Commit to a healthy diet
Be physically active
Avoid harmful use of alcohol
Pay attention to governmental alerts!
Avoid standing water
Pay attention to expiration dates, cooking temps and refrigeration warnings
Get regular health screenings
- how it travels
Water, air, soil, food
Routs of entry
- how it enters the host
Inhalation, ingestion, absorption
Active Immunity
Naturally acquired or vaccine stimulated active immunity- occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of their immune system responding

Passive Immunity
Artificially acquired-Short term immunization by the injection of antibodies that are not produced by the recipient’s own cells
Naturally acquired- immunity occurs during pregnancy, in which certain antibodies are passed form the mom to the fetal bloodstream

CDCs Environmental Hazards and Health Effects Program
- investigate the relation between human health and the environment
- increase knowledge. Develop, implement, and evaluate policies and programs to prevent and control disease.
- Research, Education, Partnership
Treatment vs. Cure
Both are helping
Symptoms get better
Some symptoms go away
The person will always have the condition, but medical treatments can help to manage the disease.

The person, after treatment, no longer has the particular condition anymore

Medications, therapy, surgery, and other treatments help to lesson the symptoms and effects of the disease

Some medications, therapy, surgery, and other treatments can get rid of the diseases.

Partner Project Presentations
We will do Research with a partner on a primary focus declared by the CDC
Include in your project
health concerns/diseases associated with the trigger- example of effect of the health trigger/hazard
How to keep safe from the health concerns associated with your researched focus
What is the financial cost to rid our world of this danger.
What procedure to get closer to zero emissions/effects/risks of the agent or vector would we need to take?
What can you do? What can we do?

Pick a Primary Focus of the CDC to Research
1. Air pollution (airborne agents) and Respiratory Health – Asthma, Mold
2. Chemical and Radiologic Terrorism
3. Cancer Clusters- a greater than expected number of cancer cases that occurs within a group of people in a geographic area over a period of time
4. Disasters- industrial chemical accidents, terrorism, natural disasters (earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes)
4. Pesticides
5. Harmful Algal Blooms
6. Water related
7. Food
8. Ionizing Radiation and associated toxicants/ radioactive materials

We will examine ways we can create Partnerships in the efforts to reduce health hazards
We will Educate each other through creative presentations of our findings
Each topic can only be picked once
Yay! Good Job. Let's get to work on your Environmental Triggers Assignments!
Chemical irritants are found in some products and may trigger asthma.
Your asthma may be worse around products such as cleaners, paints, adhesives, pesticides, cosmetics or air fresheners.
Chemical irritants are also present in schools and can be found in commonly used cleaning supplies and educational kits.

Chemical irritants may exacerbate asthma. At sufficient concentrations in the air, many products can trigger a reaction.

Disease-Causing Organism
is a micro-organism that can make you sick if you eat it, inhale it, or come into contact with it (get it on your skin, or in your ears, etc).
They can also make you sick if you eat raw shellfish, like oysters, that are contaminated from being harvested in contaminated water.

Disease-causing organisms do not affect everybody the same way; they are most dangerous to people who have weak immune systems or are frequently sick.

Not all bacteria and viruses will make you sick
Disease-causing organisms contaminate water. They can make you sick if you play in, swim in, or drink this water.

What is Radiation?
Are you exposed to radiation?
How to avoid EMF radiation risks from computers, microwaves, cell phones, and other household items
Well how dangerous are our electronics?!?
Minute Physics: Is Radiation Dangerous?
The law says hospitals, ambulances and health-care workers must be protected and should never be targeted as they carry out their regular duties. This is often far from the reality. Worldwide, the lack of safe access to health care is causing untold suffering to millions of people.
Think of areas in our country and around the world with poor quality or no healthcare. What does that do to the population's health?
Disease-causing organisms get into the water from untreated sewage. When people go to the bathroom they create waste called sewage. Every home, school, and business is required by law to have some way of treating its sewage or transporting it to a sewage treatment system.

In a city, the sewage is transported to a large sewage treatment plant. Sometimes raw sewage can contaminate water when storms flood or break the large ponded treatment areas, or when the transport pipes break. Also, people let their pets make waste (poop) on sidewalks and the street. When it rains, their pets’ waste runs off into storm drains and out into bayous, lakes, and bays.


- reduce exposure time
- get away!
- put something between you and radioactive device
Contamination Control
- broken or leaking devices need to isolated and fixed
Radiation exposure causes possible Cell Damage
Minimize exposure through 4 different ways
Ionizing Radiation - Our Radiation Environment
Ionizing Radiation - Harmful Effects of Radiation
Non- Iodizing Radiation
Radiation not strong enough to tear apart an atom. It is radiation described as a series of energy waves composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields traveling at
the speed of light
Non-ionizing radiation includes the spectrum of ultraviolet (UV), visible light, infrared (IR), microwave (MW), radio frequency (RF), and extremely low frequency (ELF)
Microwave radiation (MW)
is absorbed near the skin, while Radio
frequency (RF) radiation
may be absorbed throughout the body. At high enough intensities both will damage tissue through heating. Sources of RF and MW radiation include radio emitters and cell phones.
Infrared Radiation (IR)
The skin and eyes absorb infrared radiation (IR) as heat. Workers normally notice excessive exposure through heat sensation and pain. Sources of IR radiation include furnaces, heat lamps, and IR lasers.
Visible Light Radiation- The different visible frequencies of the
electromagnetic (EM)
spectrum are "seen" by our eyes as different colors. Good lighting is conducive to increased production, and may help prevent incidents related to poor lighting conditions. Excessive visible radiation can damage the eyes and skin.
Ultraviolet Radiation (UV)
has a high photon energy range and is particularly hazardous because there are usually no immediate symptoms of excessive exposure. Sources of UV radiation include the sun, black lights, welding arcs, and UV lasers.
Lasers typically emit optical (UV, visible light, IR) radiations and are primarily an eye and skin hazard. Common lasers include CO2 IR laser; helium - neon, neodymium YAG, and ruby visible lasers, and the Nitrogen UV laser.
Community Health Promoters - How People in Africa Use Sanitation Education to Combat Disease
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
What Are POPs?
Many POPs were widely used during the boom in industrial production after World War II, when thousands of
synthetic chemicals
were introduced into commercial use.
Many of these chemicals proved beneficial in pest and disease control, crop production, and industry. These same chemicals, however, have had
unforeseen effects on human health and the environment.
POPs can travel great distances and become widely distributed through natural processes, and accumulate in the fatty tissue of living things!
They are a big issue! They cause a lot of diseases. The concern is real and so is this song!
Toxic - persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by Daftjazz
The DDT Dilemma
DDT is likely one of the most famous and controversial pesticides ever made.
An estimated 4 billion pounds of this inexpensive and historically effective chemical have been produced and applied worldwide since 1940.
In the US, DDT was used extensively on agricultural crops, particularly cotton, from 1945 to 1972.
DDT was also used to protect soldiers from insect-borne diseases such as malaria and typhus during World War II, and it remains a valuable public health tool in parts of the tropics
The heavy use of this highly persistent chemical, however, led to widespread environmental contamination and the accumulation of DDT in humans and wildlife

One bird species especially sensitive to DDE was the bald eagle. Public concern about the eagles’ decline and the possibility of other long-term harmful effects of DDT exposure to both humans and wildlife prompted the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
to cancel the registration of DDT in 1972. The bald eagle has since experienced one of the most dramatic species recoveries in our history.

Chemicals are in Everything!
Carcinogen Shopping. What could be more fun!
Environmental Health Project: Carcinogens
These toxins persist for a long time in the environment and can be passed from one species to another through contact and along the food chain.
Next 3 toxins explained are the most common...
Is Anyone Going to Do Something About This!?!?!
To address this global concern of Persistent Organic Pollutants, the US Joined 90 other European Countries in May 2001 in the creation of the Stockholm Convention.... Held in Stockholm Sweden ;o)
2004 a global treaty whose purpose is to safeguard human health and the environment from highly harmful chemicals that persist in the environment and affect the well-being of humans as well as wildlife was created.
If this is what POPs are doing to animals what are they doing to us?
Some POPs, particularly DDT, dioxins, and PCBs, are considered to be endocrine disruptors, which are chemicals that may interfere with the production or activity of hormones in the human endocrine system.
What should you do knowing this?
knowledge is power
What are Dioxins?
Most dioxins are produced through burning and other industrial activities.
Major sources of dioxin emissions are incineration of waste, chlorine bleaching of pulp and paper, copper smelting, chemical manufacturing, cement kiln burning, coal-fired electricity generation, wood burning, forest fires, and backyard burning of household trash.
Other sources of dioxin emissions include
cigarette smoking,
drum and barrel reclamation facilities, motor vehicles, residential oil furnaces, scrap electric wire recovery, and tire burning.
In the early
's DDT became one of the most widely used pesticides. This was when we thought it was completely harmless to human beings. When we originally used it to control
, people were unaffected even though they were in direct contact with the pesticides.

One of the reasons why the DDT did not affect people is because it is difficult for DDT to be absorbed through human skin.

Eventually, we realized that some
DDT was staying in our bodies
. DDT was being used in the environment, on agricultural products, and on livestock. In the 1960's, people started getting nervous about the effects on humans.

A study in
showed that Americans were consuming an average of 0.025 milligrams of DDT per day!

When DDT gets into our bodies, it is stored primarily in such fatty organs as the
adrenals, testes, and thyroid. DDT is also stored in smaller concentrations in the liver and kidneys.

DDT concentrations are especially high in human milk. Milk production depends heavily on the use of stored body fat, and this is where DDT tends to stay in our bodies.

So exactly how much DDT can my body tolerate before I should really start worrying? That depends on how much you weigh (think of small babies!). At concentration above 236 mg DDT per kg of body weight, you'll die. Concentration of 6-10 mg/kg leads to such symptoms as headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and tremors.

For fun, try and calculate how much DDT would be lethal for you. 1lbs= .453592kg- One million mg in a kg

Currently, there is much debate as to whether DDT can increase a woman's chance of breast cancer. There is even greater debate on the dangers of eating animals mutated by the effects of DDT

Effects on Humans->
TCDD was an ingredient of the herbicide
Agent Orange
, which was used as a defoliant by the U.S. military during the Vietnam War. Pentachlorophenol (PCP), which is used to preserve wood, contains dioxins.

Spreading it all over enemy land seemed like a good idea at the time... how could this come back to hurt us?
A defoliant is a chemical that removes the leaves from trees and plants and is often used in warfare to kill the enemies crops!
Dioxins have been linked with
Hodgkin disease
non-Hodgkin lymphoma
soft-tissue sarcoma
respiratory cancers
prostate cancer
multiple myeloma
and more tentatively with type 2 diabetes mellitus and other conditions
problems with pregnancy and congenital birth defects and other health problems in their children
It has been also been proven that parental exposure to Agent Orange increases the risk of Spina Bifida in children.
Over 5% of the children of Vietnamese ex- soldiers exposed to Agent Orange were born with defects
The toxins linger in the systems of the Vietnamese
and the U.S veterans exposed to it. Dioxin has a half-life of about 7-10 years in the human body. That means it takes 7-10 years for half of the dioxin to degrade. Therefore, It will always be in the bodies of the people exposed.
Look at this picture. Explain on a clean sheet of paper the environmental effects in regards to Non-Communicable Disease.
Draw at least 5 conclusions/ make 5 discussion points and explain them
Polychlorinated biphenyls
, commonly called
Mixtures of up to 209 chlorinated compounds that do not occur naturally. PCBs are either oily liquids or waxy solids that are colorless to light yellow. They have no taste or smell. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and endocrine disruptors.

U.S. production of PCBs stopped in 1977 because of suspected harmful health and environmental effects; exports and imports of PCBs stopped in 1979. Before 1977, PCBs were used as insulation, coolants, and lubricants in transformers, capacitors, vacuum pumps, gas-transmission turbines, hydraulic fluids, and other electrical equipment; as fillers in casting waxes; as plasticizers in paints, plastics, and rubber products; and in surface coatings, sealants, caulking compounds, fire retardants, dedusting agents, glues, inks, pesticides, and carbonless copy paper. Products made before 1977 that may still contain PCBs include old fluorescent lights, electrical devices, and microscope hydraulic oils.
So, a whole bunch of things that are still around!
An estimated 1.3 million pounds of different types of PCBs were dumped into the Hudson River by General Electric from 1946 until 1977, when they were banned.
The most common route of exposure to PCBs is from eating contaminated fish. The EPA estimates an increased cancer risk as high as 1 in 2500 for people eating certain species of fish from the Hudson River&em; thousand times higher than the EPA´s goal for protection.
Unlike water-soluble chemicals, PCBs aren't excreted, the body accumulates PCBs over years.
This means that PCBs also accumulate via the food chain: a small fish may absorb PCBs in water or by eating plankton, and these PCBs are stored in its body fat. When a larger fish eats the small fish, it also eats and absorbs all the PCBs that have built up in the small fish. In this way, larger fish and animals can build up a highly concentrated store of PCBs.

Some types of PCBs may degrade into nontoxic form while they are stored in the body, but this process can take many years.
PCBs accumulate in women and pass on to their infants through breast milk. This accumulation means that nursing infants may ingest PCB levels much higher than the levels in fish and other foods consumed by their mothers. Little people have a harder time with toxins
1. Pick a Chemical, any Chemical
2. Explain how it effects the environment
3. If it has ever been mistreated/ misused
4. Describe the effects it has on Humans
Chemicals to choose from , but are not limited :
Acetone, Ammonia, Arsenic, Asbestos, Benzene, Cadmium, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Chlorine, CFCs, Chromium, Crude Oil, Diesel, Ethylene Glycol, Ethylene Oxide, Formaldehyde, Gasoline, Lead, Mercury, Methane, Methanol, Nanoparticles, Natural Gas, Nitrogen
Environmental Health
comprises those aspects of human health, including quality of life, that are determined by physical, chemical, biological, social, and psychosocial factors in the environment.
It also refers to the theory and practice of
assessing, correcting, controlling, and preventing
those factors in the environment that can potentially affect adversely the health of present and future generations." -World Health Organization

A formal risk assessmen
t involves a multi-step process (seen in the flow chart on the left) including issue identification, hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment and so on. Official environmental risk assessments are highly detailed, analytical studies with much data and statistics involved.
Found on Class Portal
Health Risk Assessment by Neighborhood
What about the sun!?!

What is Environmental Health and why should you care?
Just in case there is any lingering confusion...
Full transcript