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Transcript of Odyssey
Introduction to tale
1. shades- This is the term most often applied to the insubstantial wraiths of the Underworld
2. Charybdis (Kah-rib-dis) and Scylla (Sill-ah)
- sea monsters
- became proverbial as a choice between equally dreadful alternatives
3. lashed- strapped
4. mast- pole structure in a ship
5. becalmed - come to a halt
6. lance- cut
7. kin – family
wife of Odysseus
Mother of Odysseus, died of grief
The most arrogant of Penelope’s suitors. He leads the campaign to have Telemachus killed. He is the first to die when Odysseus returns.
The aged and loyal servant who nursed Odysseus and Telemachus when they were babies. Eurycleia is well informed about palace intrigues and serves as confidante to her masters. She keeps Telemachus’s journey secret from Penelope, and she later keeps Odysseus’s identity a secret after she recognizes a scar on his leg.
loyal shepherd, friend of Odysseus's family
A manipulative, deceitful suitor. Eurymachus’s charisma and duplicity allow him to exert some influence over the other suitors.
-one of Penelope's suitors
- gave Penelope goats, sheep, and gold
The brother of Melantho. Melanthius is a treacherous and opportunistic goatherd who supports the suitors, especially Eurymachus, and abuses the beggar who appears in Odysseus’s palace, not realizing that the man is Odysseus himself.
King of Ithaca
-Sister of Melanthius and maidservant in Odysseus’s palace.
-she is having an affair with Eurymachus
The beautiful witch-goddess/ enchantress who transforms Odysseus’s crew into swine when they land on her island.
-The beautiful nymph goddess who falls in love with Odysseus when he lands on her island-home of
-Daughter of Atlas
-Held Odysseus captive
T i r e s i a s
-A Theban prophet who inhabits the underworld
-He shows Odysseus how to get back to Ithaca
-Son of Odysseus and Penelope
-Prince of Ithaca
-A Cyclop, uncivilized one-eyed-giant
King of Pylos and a former warrior in the Trojan War. Telemachus visits him to ask about his father, but Nestor knows little of Odysseus’s whereabouts.
King of Sparta and husband of Helen, he helped lead the Greeks in the Trojan War. He offers Telemachus assistance in his quest to find Odysseus.
Wife of Menelaus and queen of Sparta. Helen’s abduction from Sparta by the Trojans sparked the Trojan War.
The beautiful daughter of King Alcinous and Queen Arete of the Phaeacians. Nausicaa discovers Odysseus on the beach at Scheria and, out of budding affection for him, ensures his warm reception at her parents’ palace.
King of the
, who offers Odysseus hospitality in his island kingdom of
. He hears the story of Odysseus’s wanderings and provides him with safe passage back to Ithaca.
Queen of the Phaeacians, wife of Alcinous, and mother of Nausicaa.
Gods and Goddesses in Odyssey
5. Aeolus - god of wind
Symbols in the story
1. The great bow of Odysseus- symbolizes true man power, strength and experience
2. The lotus, Circe, Siren's song- symbols of temptation
1. The power of cunning over strength
2. The pitfalls of temptation
3. The tension between goals and obstacles
4. The misery of separation
5. Maturation as a journey
; Ciconians' land
Land of the Lotus eaters
; Island of Aeolus
; Laestrygonians' land
; Island of the Sun
; Calypso's island
The clever Greek Odysseus had tricked the enemy into bringing a colossal wooden horse within the walls of Troy by making one of his Greek soldiers lie to the enemy and trick them that the Trojan horse was a trophy for them.
but Laocoon told the Trojans that the horse is a trap sent by Odysseus. Poseidon then sent 2 sea serpents and ate Laocoon. Ignoring Laocoon and Cassandra's warning, the Trojan horse was let into the walls of troy with the Trojans having no idea that Greek soldiers were hidden inside.
That night, while the Trojans slept, Odysseus and his men emerged from the horse's belly. Opening the city gates, they admitted their comrades, who had snuck back in the dark. Troy was sacked and the Trojans utterly vanquished.
Now it was time for Odysseus and his fellow warriors to return to their kingdoms across the sea. Here begins the tale of the Odyssey.
Land of the Lotus eaters
Nine days after departure from Troy, they found themselves in a strange land and miles from their original course. In order to learn a bit more about this alien place, Odysseus sent 3 of his bravest soldiers on a scouting mission.
On their expedition, they found themselves among natives. Like any good host, these natives introduced them to one of their favorite appetizers: the lotus. A single taste of this native fruit made the soldiers forget everything they had ever known.
Although they would have enjoyed this easy way of living at this point, Odysseus decided he would not give them the chance to choose it. Sadly, he had to put the 3 soldiers in chains and leave them behind.
Not only had they lost all sense of obligation and duty, but their sickness could have affected the remaining crew. Minus three, they sailed in the direction of their original course.
Battle with Polyphemus the Cyclops
Odysseus reflects on what he and his soldiers have done. He tells himself that now he can do anything and nothing can stop him for he singlehandedly lead his soldiers to defeat the Trojans. Poseidon became angry because Odysseus forgot to thank him for the help he gave so he cursed Odysseus to never be able to return to Ithaca.
Odysseus and his soldiers has been sailing for weeks and not yet seen land. They then saw land not knowing that Cyclops lived within the island. Tired and hungry they went in a cave with loads of cheese inside and ate some of it.
The Cyclops named Polyphemus, son of Poseidon, then came inside his cave and saw them eating his cheese. He got mad and ate one of the soldiers. Odysseus then had a plan to trick Polyphemus by making him drink wine and put him to sleep.
During Polyphemus’s slumber, Odysseus and his remaining soldiers created a spear and poked it on the eye of the sleeping Cyclops making that an advantage to be able to leave the cave.
Polyphemus, under so much pain then asked Poseidon to curse Odysseus and his men. They went back into sailing.
Aiolia, The Laestrygonians, & Love affair with the enchantress
Odysseus finally saw his home island; they were so close but yet so far; it would still take them a day to reach Ithaca. Full of happiness, Odysseus took a nap. Then, one of the soldiers wanted to open the sac to see what was inside. Then while Odysseus was sleeping, one of his men opened the sac and powerful winds blew them farther away from Ithaca; blowing them fast to the opposite direction of where Ithaca was.
They stopped over an island. Odysseus sent Eurylochus and some of his soldiers to look for food. Eurylochus came back with a pig, the soldiers that were left there waiting were excited with the sight of food but Eurylochus stopped them, telling them that it was one of the soldiers transformed by Circe (the enchantress) into a swine.
He then told them the story of how they survived the enchantress’s spell but none believed him except Odysseus. Odysseus then went on the stone palace of Circe to get his men back. With the help of Hermes, he reached the palace unaffected by Circe’s spell. Odysseus and Circe had a deal. For Circe to transform his men back to humans, Odysseus must sleep with her.
Drowned in the comforts of Circe’s palace, Odysseus and his men now back to normal, forgot their problems and did not realize the time, what they thought that were five days were actually five years.
He asked Circe to let them go. The goddess was willing to let them go, but it was not as simple as that. “You will never see your home again,' she said, 'by sailing there directly. You must detour to the land of Death, there to consult the blind prophet Tiresias. He alone can chart your course.”
Journey to the land of the dead
At the farthest edge of Ocean's stream is the land to which all journey when they die. Here their spirits endure a fleshless existence. They can't even talk unless re-animated with blood. Tiresias, the blind prophet who had accompanied them to Troy, was the soul Odysseus had to talk to.
He gave them warnings about his journey home and told him what he must do to ensure a happy death when his time came. Odysseus met the shades of many famous women and heroes, including Achilles, best fighter of the Greeks at Troy.
One of the shades was Odysseus’s mother. His mother told him she could not wait any longer for him to get back to Ithaca, with grief over powering her heart, she killed herself. They said their goodbyes with Odysseus full of sadness in him for the death of his mother.
Charybdis and Scylla: The equally dreadful alternatives
At sea once more they had to pass the Sirens, whose sweet singing lures sailors to their doom. Odysseus filled up the ears of his crew with wax, and he alone listened while lashed to the mast, powerless to steer toward shipwreck.
Next came Charybdis, who swallows the sea in a whirlpool, then spits it up again. Avoiding this they skirted the cliff where Scylla exacts her toll. Each of her six slavering maws grabbed a sailor and wolfed them down.
Finally they were becalmed on the island of the Sun. His men disregarded all warnings and sacrificed cattle, so back at sea; Zeus sent a thunderbolt that smashed the ship. Odysseus alone survived, washing up on the island of Calypso.
Prison of Love
Calypso fell in love with Odysseus and refused to give him a ship to get him back to Ithaca.
Athena then asked Zeus to help Odysseus out of Calypso’s island, so Zeus sent Hermes to Calypso and told her that it is not Odysseus’s destiny to spend eternity with her, she must let him go or else Zeus will drown her island including her maids.
Odysseus then made his ship out of dry wood and went on to sailing. Suddenly, Poseidon knew about Odysseus getting off the island and sent storms that destroyed Odysseus’s ship as revenge for blinding his son Polyphemus.
Meanwhile in Ithaca. . .
A large and rowdy mob of suitors who have overrun Odysseus’s palace and pillaged his land continue to court his wife, Penelope, but she remained faithful to Odysseus.
Prince Telemachus wants desperately to throw them out but does not have the confidence or experience to fight them. Athena shows up in disguise but later reveals herself to Telemachus to inspire him about his father.
Telemachus asks his countrymen to fit him out with a ship so that he might seek news of his father. Antinous, a suitor, then made a plan with the others to kill Telemachus and Odysseus if ever they come back home.
Telemachus reached Pylos by dawn. Nestor, the king of Pylos, suggested that they should journey to Sparta and ask Menelaus for further news about his father and gave him a chariot.
Menelaus and Queen Helen, king and queen of Sparta, welcomed them with full hospitality. Menelaus was one of those who accompanied Odysseus in the war against Troy so he must have known where Odysseus is but sadly he does not know, all he knows are the characteristics Odysseus has and it is possible that he still lives. Telemachus received the news that he had sought and journeyed back home.
Last destination of Odysseus
Odysseus was washed up on the shore of Phaeacians. He was found by Nausicaa, princess of the Phaeacians, and brought him to their palace. King Alcinous and Queen Arete healed his wounds and were asked of his name.
They were all shocked when Odysseus introduced himself and were all curious, so they asked for his tale. He then told them about all of his misadventures.
King Alcinous then lent him a ship, gave him treasures, and gave him guidance for a safe trip back to Ithaca.
Phaeacians are famous for being skilled mariners so the journey to Ithaca was fast and secure although they were starting to worry about Odysseus’s health; he hasn’t slept for days so they gave him a sleeping potion.
Slaying of the suitors
When Odysseus finally arrived in Ithaca, he first went to his old shepherd friend Eumaeus. Then came Telemachus. Odysseus and Telemachus thought of a plan to defeat all of Penelope’s suitors.
Athena then came and disguised Odysseus as an old beggar so only Telemachus can recognize him. When Odysseus arrives at the palace the next day, still disguised as a beggar, he endures abuse from the suitors.
When Odysseus arrives at the palace the next day, still disguised as a beggar, he endures abuse from the suitors.
Then while Eurycleia, an old nurse who took care of Odysseus and Telemachus, was wiping dirt off of the old beggar, she notices a scar and recognizes the old beggar as Odysseus but she swears not to disclose his secret.
Penelope organizes an archery contest the following day and promises to marry any man who can string Odysseus’s great bow and fire an arrow through a row of twelve axes; a feat that only Odysseus has ever been able to accomplish.
At the contest, each suitor tries to string the bow and fails. Odysseus steps up to the bow and with little effort, fires an arrow through all twelve axes. He then turns the bow to the suitors. He and Telemachus, assisted by a few faithful servants, kill every last suitor.
Odysseus is now back to his old self and reunited with his wife Penelope after 20 long years.
The next morning Odysseus goes upcountry to the vineyard where his father, old King Laertes, labors like a peasant. Ever since his wife died of heartbreak for Odysseus, the miserable man has lived with his field hands.
Odysseus cannot resist testing his father with a tall tale before their fond reunion. Meanwhile, the kin of the suitors have borne off their dead and gathered at the assembly ground.
The father of the suitor Antinous fires them up for revenge. Odysseus, Telemachus, the loyal herdsmen, Laertes and the fieldhands arm themselves to meet the challenge. Laertes casts a lance through the helmet of Antinous' father, who falls to the ground in a clatter of armor.
At the command of Zeus, the fighting stops right there. Athena, in the guise of an old family friend, tells the contending parties to live together in peace through the years to come.
Some of Odysseus's Soldiers
- most convincing liar, the best blacksmith in north Greece
- his stubbornness makes him relentless, the one turned into a swine by Circe
- most loyal companion of Odysseus
- the one that got drunk before they left Circe's palace. He was found asleep on the roof.
- helmsman of Odysseus
– a greek soldier. Pretended to have deserted the Greeks and as a Trojan captive, told the Trojans that the giant wooden horse the Greeks had left behind was intended as a gift
The one who built the Trojan horse
warned the the Trojans about the Trojan horse
daughter of King Priam of Troy and whom Apollo fell in love with so she was given the ability to see the future but she did not return Apollo’s love so Apollo placed a curse on her so no one would believe her predictions. She warned the Trojans about the Trojan horse and the fall of Troy but nobody believed her
After Odysseus and his men depart from Troy, they were greeted by friendly and calm waters. Eurylochus convinced Odysseus that the gods were on their side and told him to go ashore and loot the nearby city.
The crew had landed in Ciconia. The city was not at all protected and all of the inhabitants fled without a fight into the nearby mountains. Odysseus and his men robbed the city of all its goods
Odysseus wisely told his men to board the ships quickly but they refused and fell asleep on the beach. The next morning, the Ciconians returned with their fierce kinsmen from the mountains. Odysseus and his men fled to the ships as fast as they could but they still lost many men.
Then they fetched up in the land of the Laestrygonians. There it's daylight around the clock. A shore patrol was dispatched to scout the countryside. They came upon a husky young girl who directed them to her mother, the queen of those people.
She was hideous and huge as a mountain, and her husband was hot for blood. He grabbed the first man, tore him in half and chomped him down. The others made a break for it. They came screaming back to the shore, followed by the entire clan of Laestrygonians.
As the men scrambled to cast off, they were bombarded by boulders pelted from the heights. The Laestrygonians smashed ships and killed many men. Odysseus urged his men to row for their lives. They made it, the only ship to escape. Their relief was overwhelmed by grief for the comrades left behind.
Desperate for a drink, they stopped over an island with a waterfall to get some drinking water. Odysseus then heard Aeolos, God of wind. Aeolos offered him help by giving him powerful winds packed in a sac so if ever Poseidon plays a trick on them the wind will blow them back to Ithaca.
Love affair with the enchantress