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The Roman Empire and Roman Public Buildings
Transcript of The Roman Empire and Roman Public Buildings
Arch of Titus
City of Timgad
Dedicated to Marcus Agrippa
Who built the first building on
This portico has 20 Corinthian columns that supported bronze roof trusses ( since removed).
Façade of the Pantheon
The rotunda is twice as high as the porch.
The exterior is made completely of brick.
The rotunda is also known as a honeycomb structure.
-The proportions of the rotunda and dome are based upon geometry, most like the entire building
-The diameter and height of the rotunda are the same: 43.2 meters
-The dome is 21.6 meters high, exactly half the height of the rotunda
-Dome made of concrete and mortar
-As the dome rises near the oculus it consists mostly of volcanic material
-Such material, which the Romans had a great supply of, is called pozzolana. It is considered to be true cement
-Covered with gilded bronze
Floor patterns of Pantheon
-Floor patterns emphasize Romans’ fascination with geometry and symmetry. The squares are finite and measurable whereas the shape are circles are infinite and immeasurable. The opposition creates a symmetry.
-Series of indented squares (five rows of 28 coffers each)
-Squares become smaller towards the top of the dome for proper support
-Each square would have been painted blue with a star in the center of each
-Creates optical illusion that dome is wider than it actually is
Structure based on arches and vaults
Structural load of the dome is distributed to concrete foundations 15 feet thick and 34 feet wide through the drum walls that are up to 20 feet thick.
The outside was clad in travertine, a cream colored marble.
Materials used to construct the Colosseum
Inscription on the arch
The scene depicts the triumphal procession with the booty from the temple at Jerusalem.
Relief of the Spoils
Relief of the Triumph of Titus
City of Timgad in Africa
Temple of Vesta
Basilicas were divided into 3 aisles:
large central isle flanked by smaller ones on each side ;separated by one or two rows of columns
center aisle was called the NAVE ( from the Latin word meaning ship and derived from the idea of an inverted boat)
The extra height of the center aisle permitted the construction of a second-story wall above the colonnade separating the NAVE from the other aisles
Clerestory windows were built into the additional wall space to admit light into the building.
Vitruvius, a Roman architect and engineer, thought they should be placed at the warmest site in the forum so that businessmen could confer in comfort.
Basilca Ulpia- Rome
Diagram of BasilicaUlpia by Trajan
The Basilica of Maxentius or the Basilica of Constantine was the last of the great civilian basilicas on the Roman Forum.
The construction of the basilica was initiated by Maxentius in 308 CE, and finished by Constantine after he had defeated Maxentius in the battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 CE.
It was the lower levels, however, that was the center of activity. There, merchants sold a variety of goods to the average Roman citizen, including wine, oil, fruits, vegetables, and other grocery items.
These shops were called "tabernaes" and were barrel-vaulted cubicles with small windows and a large opening to the street. They were often decorated with mosaics depicting the wares in the shop.
Also in the lower part of the market were two large halls, which were probably used for concerts, speeches or education.
Ground Floor- Antique pavement
Had libraries, courtyards, temples, plazas, baths, and a theater.
View of Hadrian's Villa model from the east. A Gladiator's Arena B Piazza d'Oro C Pecile D Maritime Theater E Hospitalia F Republican Villa G Imperial Palace
This part of the double portico was designed for an after-dinner stroll as recommended by doctors, as an inscription found here indicates.
The length of the portico was related to their advice--calculated for a healthy walk. (It is 1450 feet, or 429 meters.)
Shrinking economic prosperity
Gradual decline of landed aristocracy and wealthy commercial class and replaced by court aristocracy
Growth of the slave class and mercenary army
Disappearance of the middle class
Emperor more and more despotic on pattern of original rulers with court ceremony
Religious movements such as Christianity
Timeline of the Early Empire
All of Italy
118 years later
56 years later
Most of Europe, except Germany
44bc Time of
The Pantheon in Rome is one of the most famous buildings in the world.
commissioned by Hadrian in 118 and completed in 128.
At one time it had a colonnaded court leading to the portico.
The dome of the rotunda behind the portico is 43.2 m (142 ft) in diameter.
(a round opening) at the top is 8.5 m (28 ft) in diameter
provides the only source of light for the interior.
Diagram of the Pantheon in Rome, Showing the Interior Architecture
rotunda is splendidly preserved;
original paneling of marble.
measures 145 feet in diameter internally,
the walls are 20 feet thick
a, height of 140 feet.
rectangular and semi-circular
fronted by Corinthian columns.
There are really two parts to the Pantheon, the circular part or rotunda and the portico. The portico was originally a part of a temple built by Agrippa, but was not put in its present place until sometime after the great rotunda was built by Hadrian (117 A.D.).
It is poorly joined to the main edifice. Notice the sixteen columns which are of red and gray granite.
The pitch of the roof of this portico is steeper than that of the Greek temples, and than other Roman ones.
Twelve superb granite Corinthian columns 50 feet high support the portico.
Before the current Pantheon was built, two other buildings occupied the same site.
The first one, a traditional rectilinear, T-shaped structure was built in 27-25 BC by general Marcus Agrippa, son-in-law of Emperor Augustus.
The temple was dedicated to the gods Mars and Venus. It burned down in 80 AD but was rebuilt by Emperor Domitian. In 110 AD the building was struck by lightning and burned down again.
The City of Timgad in Africa
Free-standing columns had been used to commemorate special events since the time of the Late Greeks.
The Roman contribution was the addition of a documentary, ribbon-like narrative frieze best shown in Trajan’s column.
It was erected in honor of his victory over the Dacians, inhabitants of modern-day Romania.
Originally there were 2 libraries flanking the column- one for Greek texts and the other for Latin.
The temple used Greek architecture with Corinthian columns, marble, and a central cella. The internal cella was surrounded by twenty Corinthian columns built on a podium fifteen meters in diameter. The roof had a vent, which made tending Vesta¹s flame a demanding task.
Since there was fire enclosed in the temple, there was risk of burning. The Temple of Vesta did burn twice in its history.
This temple is dedicated to Vesta, the goddess of fire. The columns, in peristyle, protect an altar and fire located inside the small cella
Parts of Spain, northen Africa,
parts of Turkey, All of Greece,
Most of Spain,more of northern Africa, all of France, Syria....
added Britian, more of Africa, all of Turkey
Trying to defeat the Picts, Invading Iraq
The Romans were run out of Scotland, -could not defeat the Picts , expanded the empire
even more , not able to defeat the Germans
It has a false pediment. Most historians believe that there was an earlier temple here and it burns and that was left. Others believe that they had to change plans in mid stream.
Trajan's Markets &
Arch of Constantine
Arch of Titus
Arch of Titus
Trajan's Arch in Africa
Photograph of the Pantheon in Rome, with the Bell Towers Removed
Dedicated to 7 planetary deities, it was constructed during the reign of Hadrian.