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AP Art History East Asia

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Rebeca Zhu

on 19 November 2014

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Transcript of AP Art History East Asia

EAST ASIA
Ceramics
China
Religious influence
Buddhism:
"Life exists in itself - there is no inherent meaning attached to life. However - as all human beings (and animals) wish for happiness and not to suffer - the purpose of life may be said to end that suffering.
Buddhism teaches that in an interconnected world, all actions have consequences (karma). "
Therefore, there is a prominent theme of balance and symmetry. Also, there are often themes of nature and the balance of nature and civilization. The gods and spirits of Buddhism also appear on Chinese pottery

"Confucianism:
Confucianism is a way of life taught by Confucius in the 6th–5th century BC. Sometimes viewed
as a philosophy, sometimes as a religion, Confucianism is perhaps best understood as an all-encompassing
humanism that neither denies nor slights heaven. Confucianism has been followed by the Chinese for more than
two millennia."
There are often themes of scholarly learning and respectful relationships between age groups.

Taoism :
"...focuses on dao as a "way" or "path" — that is, the appropriate way to behave and to lead others — but the
Daode jing (the religous text of Taoism) also refers to Tao as something that existed "before Heaven and Earth," a primal and chaotic matrix from which all forms emerged. Taoism did not exist as an organized religion until the Way of the Celestial Masters sect was founded in
Again, this desired balance with the world can be see through common scenes of nature on Chinese ceramics.

Materials
Jade
- was believed to have magical properties and to preserve the dead. Therfore, it was one of the most valuable materials in ancient Chinese Art. It would sometimes be embedded in Ceramics
Glazed pottery
and the first kilns were created during the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600-1100 BC).
Lime glaze
was often used to preserve the glazes
Lacquerware
became popular during Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220). It also became a popular item in trade
Blue-and-white (qing-hua) and underglaze red chinaware (you-li-hong)
is one of the most iconic styles of Chinese pottery, and rose to its height of popularity during the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) and Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
Enamel
was used in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
Black-glazed ceramics
- inexpensive utilitarian wares used by the middle class. Used mainly from the tenth through thirteenth centuries. They were used for eating food, carrying water storage, etc. (not decoration)
Yueh - H
igh-fired celadon from the South of China from as early as the Warring States period (480 - 221 B.C.) It is green
glaze porcelaineous wares, though it can range from yellow to grey-green, olive, blue, or blue-green.
'
True Porcelain
' during the T'ang dynasty in the ninth century. It became popular in trade, but it also was valued for utilitarian purposes, rather than just decorative art (because it was very hard)
Examples
Examples 2
Korean
Role of Art
Korean pottery was clearly influenced by China, sometimes it is difficult to distinguish some Korean wares from those made in the northern provinces of China, especially of those made during the contemporary Han to Tang period.
Goryeo Celadon was highlt valued in international trade
Dojagi (“pottery" in Korean) is a compound noun of the words “dogi” (earthenware) and “jagi” (porcelain). This s because there were four kinds of pottery made in ancient Korea: porcelain, earthenware, stoneware, and clayware (all of them were taken from Chinese methods, and reinterpreted)
Korean had a dual purpose of being decoration, and having functional value. "Korean pottery is often decorated with animals and plants: for example, a playful monkey or a dragon. Generally, patterns found on ceramic pieces reflect the manner or beliefs with which Koreans view nature."
Common images in Korean Ceramics and their meaning:

Cranes and clouds:
longevity and nobility.
Peaches:
wish for a long (a fruitful haha) life.
Lotus flowers:
a utopian meaning, heaven
Prosperity and abundance, in turn, are conveyed in many patterns depicting chestnuts, grapes and pomegranates.
Carp -
a successful career.
Lovebirds
- conjugal affection
Peonies -
wealth and honor.
Chrysanthemum -
Stillness and solitariness
Willows, ducks, or ponds -
typically signal stillness and tranquility
Who or what is "served" by this art? It there a patron? Is the patron a group, an individual or
other?
One of the difficulties in the study of Korean pottery is that practically everything has been recovered from tombs
South East Asia
Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand, and
Vietnam
Cambodia
“antique Khmer ceramics are renowned, but the technology was lost during the recent terrible upheavals in Cambodia. Archaeologists have sought to rediscover this technology, researching antique Khmer glazing, bisque, kilns, pottery language etc. Archaeologists want to soon start the
construction of an antique Khmer kiln (Dragon kiln).”
They are referring to the Cambodian genocide

Material: Tan stoneware and “temmoku” brown glaze with amber tones
Dimensions: H: 54.3 cm Dia: 23.5 cm???
Date: Angkor period, XIIth century
Collection: National Museum of Cambodia,
Phnom Penh
H:408 H:44.64 Kha.1924
Vietnam
Early Vietnamese pottery resembled Han dynasty inspired bronze wares of the period
Typical traits:
vibrant yellow, green, red and brown hues
decorative floral and animal motifs
inscribed with Chinese characters and Buddhist symbols
Like Korean ceramics, they balanced utilitarian purposes and aesthetic ones
Influenced by China
a Birmingham Curator Mr. Stevenson said - “When the French first
discovered these pieces in excavations in the 1920s and 1930s, they considered them to be somewhat degenerate,
provincial Chinese art, rather than from a Vietnamese tradition.”

Thailand:
Although Thai ceramics traditionally were used for household purposes, although some larger pieces could be found in palaces, and later monasteries. However, in the 14th century, the country began to export their ceramics, providing great benefit to the country.
Green glazed celadon and fish painted stoneware from Thailand dominated the international market 300 years before blue and white Thai porcelain designs.
The greatest historical record of Thai ceramics are from shipwrecks in the South China Sea.
Statuary
China
Founded by Liu Bang and lasted from 206 BCE to 220 CE. The Western Han Capital, Chang'an which is now Shaanxi Province is one of the two largest cities in the ancient world. Much of Chinese culture was developed during this period and it is known as the Golden Age of Ancient China. They invented many things including paper, iron casting, crop rotation, and acupuncture also they advanced in architecture, engineering, argriculture and many others. They are most famously known for their iron, copper work, and silk.
This is an example of early Chinese sculpture which was created during the Han dynasty. The artist depicted life in the human subject and focused on the facial expression and the range og movement. The figure is a woman represented dancing with movement in her arms and legs with very detailed characteristics. It was made out of earthenware, was once painted, and also functioned as funerary art.
Architecture
Painting
History
:
Traditional Chinese painting dates back to the Neolithic Age about 6,000 years ago
Over the centuries, the growth of Chinese painting inevitably reflected the change of time and social conditions. From Primitive to Modern times.
The styles and traditions in figure, landscape, and bird-and-painting have formed themes that continue to blend to this day into a single piece of music.
Traditional Chinese painting is also known as "Guo Hua"
Painting done by using a brush dipped in black or colored ink
Painting usually done on paper or silk
Finished work can be mounted on scrolls or hung
China
One of the greatest empires of the Medieval period lasting from 618–907 AD and was established by Li Yuan. The tang dynasty was very similar to the Western Han empire in foreign trade, land area, population, capital cities, and the beginning and end of the empires. The Tang dynasty is most famous for their poetry, woodblock printing, and gunpowder.
Techniques:
1. "Gong-bi" or meticulous attention to detail, referring mainly to portraits
Paintings and Dynasties:
Han
(202 BC) to Tang (618-906) Dynasties
Artists painted many detailed, elaborate portraits of the royal court.
Depicted court lives of emperors, their wives, and the helping ladies
Tang
dynasty started landscape paintings, often referred to "Shanshui" ("mountain water")
Song
Dynasty (960-1279)
Landscape paintings almost attained a mythical quality with blurred outlines of mountains and mists.
Yuan
Dynasty (1279-1368)
Painters began adding poetry and calligraphy to their works to express their thoughts and feelings.
Ming
Dynasty (1368-1644)
Color printing techniques

Famous Painters and their Paintings
Wealthy Patrons:
In the 1700s and 1800s, wealthy patrons nurtured and encouraged new works by promising artists. Some large cities such as Shanghai and Yangzhou became art centers.
2. "Xie yi" or freehand, referring mainly to landscapes.
Riverside Scene at Qingming Festival
Painter: Zhang Zeduan(1085 — 1145), Northern Song Dynasty
The hand scroll painting is 528.7 cm long and 24.8 cm wide (HUGE). It provides a window to the period's economic activities in urban and rural areas, and captures the daily life of people of all ranks in the capital city of Bianjing (today's Kaifeng, Henan Province) during Qingming Festival in the Northern Song Dynasty. It is an important historical reference material for the study of the city then as well as the life its residents rich and poor.
This sculpture is said to be Amitabha which is the chief Buddha of the Lotus family. He is also called the Buddha of Immeasurable Light and the Buddha of the Western Paradise or the Pure Land of Sukhavati. The devotion to Amitabha and wanting to be in his Pure Land has been a major element of Chinese Buddhist practice. The artist used a dry lacquer technique which is when a figure or vessel is covered with multiple layers of hemp cloth soaked in lacquer, and the surface details being sculpted with a mixture of lacquer, sawdust, powdered clay stone, and other materials. It also has two different methods called hollow and wood-core. This technique was very common for Buddhist sculptures in China and even spread to Japan as well. This sculpture was created using the hollow dry lacquer technique and once had gilt and polchrome pigments.
Korea
Nymph of the Luo River
Painter: Gu Kaizhi (344-406), Jin Dynasty
The narrative silk scroll depicts the meeting and the eventual separation of Cao Zhi and the Nymph of the Luo River; the art captures the tension through the composition of the figures, stones, trees and mountains. The painting is one of the most important Chinese artworks, representing the beginning of the development of Chinese landscape paintings.
Emperor Taizong Receiving the Tibetan Envoy
Painter: Yan Liben (c. 600-673), also a government official, Tang Dynasty
Lasting from 907 to 1125, it was started by the Khitan tribe in Northern China after trying to establish their own state but failed so they were brought under Chinese rule. After this Yelu Abaoji later known as Taizu, the chief of the Khitan tribe, established the Khitan Kingdom and declared himself emperor. uring this time they had accomplished a great deal in astronomy, the calendar, medicine and architecture.
Tang Dynasty
In the painting, the emperor sits on a sedan surrounded by maids holding fans and canopy. He looks composed and peaceful. On the left, one person in red is the official in the royal court. The envoy stands aside formally and holds the emperor in awe. The last person is an interpreter.
History:

Although Korean painting is not well known in the west, it has held an important place in Korea from a very early date.
Deeply influenced by the Chinese art , but Korean art pursued its own path.
Korean painting stretches back to the early murals painted on the walls of tombs during the fourth century


Western Han Dynasty
Three Kingdoms Period:
1) Koryo
The Koryo period (918-1392) was marked by a proliferation of painters as many aristocrats and began painting for the intellectual stimulation
Flourishing of Buddhism-->paintings with Buddhist motifs
Practice of painting scenes based on their actual appearance which would later become common during the Chosun period.

2) Chosun
The Chosun period (1392-1910) is marked by a great number of changes that occurred in Korean painting.
The decline of the strong Buddhist culture helped to move Korean painting away from its emphasis on religious motifs
Started Korean paintings that were based on actual scenes of the Korean countryside or common activities.
Depiction of animals and plants

3) Colonial Period
The Japanese colonial period (1910-1945) nearly wiped out the tradition of Korean painting.
Many things Korean were suppressed, such as the language, in an attempt to assimilate the Koreans into the Japanese culture.
After Korea's liberation from Japan in 1945, Korea's painting tradition was revived by a number of Korean artisans in the same way the art of making celadon was revived.
Female Dancer, 2nd century B.C.
Liao Dynasty
* Many landscapes from this period, chief among them the Eight Views, are painted in the
An Gyeon style.
Some notable features of the An Gyeon style include the cloudlike mountain forms and the pine trees; the dramatic interpenetration of solids and voids; the effective contrast between light and dark ink tones; and the powerful command of brushstrokes and modeling ink washes.
Paintings depicting reunions of government officials current and retired, as well as gatherings of newly minted officials—those who had just passed the entrance examination for civil or military service and were about to embark on government careers—make up a unique and vibrant genre within early Chosun paintings. They also attest to the value placed on proper Neo-Confucian education and literary fluency as keys to social advancement in early Choun society.
He Garden of Yangzhou
Gallery :
Qing Dynasty
the official He Cangren reconstructed Shuanghuai garden and renamed it Jixiaoshangzhuang
1, 4000 square meters


http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hi/te_index.asp?i=11
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kore/hd_kore.htm
Japan

• Characteristics of the Japanese style include elevated viewpoints, diagonal lines, and depersonalized faces
• Hboku or ink-splashed painting: free and open style that vies the illusion of being splashed on the surface
• Ukiyo-e: "pictures on the floating world
• Floating: Buddhist sense of the passing or transient nature of life
• Depict scenes of everyday life or pleasure: festivals, theatre, domestic life, geishas, brothels, and so on
• Millions of prints were sold to the middle class and affection in Europe
• Printmaking
• At the beginning black and white
• 1741, two color system was introduced
• 1765, polychrome print was created--> product more expensive and more time consuming
• Influenced by western art as well (realistic)

Characteristics of Japanese Painting and Printmaking:
• Japanese Woodblock Prints Extremely popular
Sold in small shops and on the street
Not very expensive, price of a bowl of noodle, ordinary people can afford and collect
Print makers were primarily men
Ukiyo-e
Skills honed since childhood
In the mid 18th century, the material became important. Blocks were planks of fine-grained hardwood, usually cherry

Popularity of ukiyo-e prints extended to the Western world as well


Arhat (luohan), ca. 1000
This almost life-size sculpture depicts a Arhat or luohan which is a perfect person who has reached nirvana and they are also considered to be guardians to a cult of Chinese Buddhists during the 9th century. It is apart of group of about 16 seated luohans that was discovered in a mountain cave near Yizhou, in Hebei Province. The artist used a polychromatic glaze and the technique known as sancai which consists of three colors.
Example- The Great Wave
Woodblock Prints:
-
Chinese Architecture
-
1826 -1833
First time landscape is a major theme in Japanese prints
Last of a series of prints called Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji
Personification of nature, it seems intent on drowning the figures in boats
Mount Fuji, sacred mountain to the Japanese, seems to be one of the waves
Striking design contrasts water and sky with large areas of negative space

Architecture Basics
Horizontal - Symmetry - Visual Impact
Bibliography
http://english.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/SH/whatToBuy/whatToBuy.jsp?action=item&cid=995806
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/718529/Korean-pottery
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http://www.history-of-china.com/img/sui-money-b.jpg -
http://www.chinese-ceramics.net/category/pottery-and-porcelain-of-the-sui-and-tang-dynasties
http://archive.artsmia.org/art-of-asia/ceramics/early-chinese-ceramics-han.cfm
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/27.119.11
http://www.cambodiamuseum.info/en_collection/ceramics/jar.html

Buildings before the Tang dynasty were primarily built of wood
From the Tang dynasty on, construction consisted orimarily of stone and brick
Chinese architecture had a major influence on the architectural styles of Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam
Gardens were the one exception to symmetry - they were typically asymmetrical
visual impact of the width of the buildings
Buddha of Amitabha, Early 7th century
http://www.chinaonlinemuseum.com/painting.php
http://www.chinatownconnection.com/history-of-chinese-painting.htm
http://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/culture/painting.htm
http://www.china.org.cn/top10/2011-11/08/content_23854076_9.htm (ran
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hi/te_index.asp?i=11
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http://www.chinaonlinemuseum.com/painting.php
http://www.chinatownconnection.com/history-of-chinese-painting.htm
http://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/culture/painting.htm
http://www.china.org.cn/top10/2011-11/08/content_23854076_9.htm (ran
Painting Formats in East Asian Art
Typically, paintings and calligraphy are created by an artist on sheets of paper or silk laid on a flat surface. The finished work is then mounted on a support system in the suitable format.
Album
Albums are comprised of relatively small square, rectangular, or fan-shaped paintings or calligraphy mounted onto individual pages and then assembled in a booklike structure (viewed from right cover to left). Collections such as this can be assembled by artists or collectors and are organized according to a specific artist, period, or subject matter.
Fan—Traditionally, oval fans made of stiffened silk mounted on a bamboo stick were used in China. Folding fans, made of folded paper braced by thin bamboo sticks, are thought to have been developed in Japan and Korea and then exported to China, probably during the Ming dynasty. The surfaces of these fans were often decorated with small-scale paintings or calligraphic inscriptions. To better preserve the work of art, fans are often removed from their bamboo frames and mounted onto album leaves.
Fan
Originally called Manchu dynasty was founded by the Manchuria a Jurchen Aisin gioro clan in Northeastern China. In 1636 Beijing was taken by Huang Taiji and the capital was moved to Shenyang and he changed the name of the empire to Qing which lasted from 1644 to 1912. Artists were most famous for their calligraphy, paintings, dramas, and literature. Literature advanced during the Qing period and large numbers of women started writing poetry. Artists also were deciding whether they should stay within tradition or move on to Western influences. Ultimately they started a New Culture Movement.
Qing Dynasty
Originally this porcelain sculpture was thought to be from the late Ming Dynasty but it was found to be an imitation of Dehua porcelain sculptures by Su Xuejin because the seal on it saying boji yuren which translates to "the vastly accomplished fisherman". This sculpture depicts the immortal Magu and her fawn which was very common in Chinese art during this time, and she functions as a gift given to married couples on certain events like their wedding anniversaries.
Figure of Magu with a fawn, late 19th–early 20th century
Chinese classifications for architecture include:
yellow - Imperial color
yellow roof tiles
red wooden columns for religious buildings
numerology - number 9 (greatest number)
Imperial
Handscroll
Handscrolls are used for horizontal paintings and calligraphy. Although often displayed fully opened in modern museums, this format was traditionally viewed section by section, unrolling and rerolling a portion at a time, moving from right to left. Separate pieces of paper are often appended to the mounting after the work of art (which can be on numerous sheets of paper or silk arranged end to end) to provide space for later viewers to inscribe commentaries. The entire mounting is attached to a wooden dowel at the end on the far left, on which the handscroll is wound. The right edge of the handscroll typically has a length of woven silk to serve as a wrapper when it is closed, as well as a ribbon and clasp to secure the roll.
commoners, be they bureaucrats, merchants or farmers
the center of the building would be a shrine for the deities and the ancestors, which would also be used during festivities
On its two sides were bedrooms for the elders
the two wings of the building (known as "guardian dragons" by the Chinese) were for the junior members of the family, as well as the living room, the dining room, and the kitchen
Sometimes the extended families became so large that one or even two extra pairs of "wings" had to be built. This resulted in a U-shaped building, with a courtyard suitable for farm work
legally regulated buildings
law held that the number of stories, the length of the building and the colors used depended on the owner's class
Commoner
Hanging Scroll
Religious
Buddhist architecture follows the Imperial style
front hall, housing the statue of a Bodhisattva
followed by a great hall, housing the statues of the Buddhas
Accommodations for the monks and the nuns are located at the two sides
sometimes also have pagodas, which may house the relics of the Gautama Buddha
older pagodas tend to be four-sided, while later pagodas usually have eight-sides.
Daoist architecture, on the other hand, usually follow the commoners' style
The main entrance usually at the side, out of superstition about demons which might try to enter the premise.
Daoist temple the main deity is located at the main hall at the front, the lesser deities at the back hall and at the sides
This format is used for vertical compositions. The completed image is mounted onto a paper backing, then framed with decorative silk borders. The silk mounting is attached to a wooden rod at the bottom to provide the necessary weight, so that the whole will hang smoothly on a wall. This rod also helps to roll up the painting for storage. A hanging scroll is suspended from a cord tied to a thin wooden strip attached to the top of the silk mounting. In Japan, paintings are traditionally mounted with more borders of different colored material than in China. Furthermore, two hanging silk streamers are suspended from the tops of the hanging scroll mountings, a practice that is probably an archaic holdover derived from early banners.
Screen
Fixed screens, typically of a single large panel, were a popular method for displaying large paintings in China. The use of these screens can best be glimpsed in paintings of interiors decorated with them. While both fixed and folding screens were imported to Japan and Korea from the Asian mainland, the latter format has become closely associated with Japanese art. Folding screens have been used indoors and outside in Japan since at least the Heian period, although they did not become widely used among the upper classes until the Momoyama period.
Korean Architecture
strengths are in simplicity and spontaneity
focuses on nature
never considered a place good enough for a building of any type unless it commanded an appropriate view of "mountains and water.
Traditional Korean architecture was seldom inclined toward ostentatiousness in scale or ornamentation
Rooms were of relatively small in size and simply decorated
exterior spaces were regarded as being more important than the interior
Korea
Three Kingdoms period lasting from 57 bc to ad 668 was when the country was divided into the kingdoms of Silla, Koguryo, and Paekche. The Silla Kingdom, founded by King Park Hyeokgeose and lasted from 57 BCE to 935 CE ruled over most of the Korean Peninsula. Many areas of these three kingdom's cultures were influenced by China, but Silla was the least influence by Chinese culture. This kingdom was most famous for their gold and gilt-bronze sculptures.
Prehistoric: log houses, pit houses, etc.

Three Kingdoms:

The Koguryo Kingdom (37B.C.-A.D.668)
influenced by Chinese Han culture
characterized by powerful lines and sturdy construction, necessitated by the rugged terrain and harsh climate of the country
Murals in tombs dating from Koguryo also reveal a great deal about the architecture of that period as many of them depict buildings which have pillars with entasis
Unified Shilla (668-935):

Shilla Kingdom unifies most of the peninsula
Widely accepted Buddhism help organize the society
Economy, culture, and architecture flourishes under peaceful times
The Three Kingdoms: Silla
Pensive Bodhisattva, mid–7th century
Most of the pensive bodhisattva in Korea during this period depict Maitreya, the bodhisattva of the future which was influenced by Chinese and Indian models but this gilt bronze pensive sculpture is unique to Korean art. This sculpture also has realistic features with awkward proportions and is in a pose distinctive to the deity with his right leg crossing the other, torso leaning slightly forward, and the fingers of his right hand touching his cheek.
Koryo Dynasty Period (918 - 1392)

As Unified Shilla weakens, Koryo emerges and achieves full unification of the peninsula
Buddhism gains further power
Residential architecture develops distinct characteristics
Literati class emerges


Josun Period (1392 - 1910)

Military coup forms the new Dynasty
Confucianism reorganizes the society
Literati class gains power
Confucian ceremonies and gender segregation greatly impacts society & architecture
Neo-Confucianism develops in late Josun Period
Standing Buddha, 8th century
This is a gilt bronze statue of a standing Buddha from the Unified Silla dynasty (668–935). The artist depicts the facial expression on this statue as peaceful with the eyes lowered which also displays a meditative attitude. Like in most Buddhist art the hand gestures convey a certain meaning. For example in this sculpture the right hand displays the gesture of reassurance and safety which is known as abhayamudra, and the left hand displays the gesture of giving and compassion which is known as varadamudra. This sculpture probably represents Amitabha who was most depicted in the Unified Silla period during the rise of Pure Land Buddhism.
East Asia Architecture
buddhist temple
Joseon Dynasty
The beautiful Shwedagon Paya in Yangon
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The Joseon Dynasy was founded was founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye and lasted from 1392 to 1910. Many of their art had Western influences and increased in realism. Although they had those influences most of their paintings, ceramics, and architecture was very unique to their culture and they had developed their own style and techniques.
Statue of Kashyapa,1700
This is a polychrome wooden sculpture that is said to be Kashyapa, the eldest of the two principle disciples of the historical Buddha Shakyamuni. He is depicted with a facial expression that conveys good will and wisdom, brightly painted colors. This type of wooden sculpture was common during the Joseon period and usaully represents monks and attendant boys and girls.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseon#Culture
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http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/pfor/hd_pfor.htm
http://ng.cengage.com/static/nb/ui/index.html?nbId=6191&nbNodeId=864176#!&parentId=864213
http://ng.cengage.com/static/nb/ui/index.html?nbId=6191&nbNodeId=864176#!&parentId=864213

Fiona Collins, Jennifer McLean, Alyssa Mack, Rebeca Zhu
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