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Transcript of Education
Education in canada
Connecting the four themes from our education 100 class and reflecting on each of them.
a legend of
our four themes
Developing a Professional identity
Current Issues in Education
Ways you can be an agent of change in schools
Structures and institutions that govern education in Alberta
The History of Education in Canada
Current Issues in Education
Ways you can be an agent of change in schools
It is important to have many different levels and groups to make decisions about curriculum and policies, because this means different opinions get considered and ideas are not just one sided
This is a democratic system meaning it is the public's job to decide on many educational leaders and policy makers
Requiring certification for teachers to teach maintains a high quality of education for Canadians
Having public education means that many people get educated and don't have to pay for a private school for their children
The ATA is very important also because they basically fight for teacher rights, for better wages, and fair treatment
The Ministerial Order
The Ministerial Order is "An order to adopt or prove goals and standards applicable to the provision of education in Alberta" (Ministerial Order, 2013).
The ministerial order is very important for us to follow because we must follow government teaching standards and we are assessed on this during our practicums
The 2013 ministerial order by Jeff Johnson states the 3 competencies students are to achieve
These include helping students to become engaged thinkers, ethical citizens with an entrepreneurial spirit
Social Justice is, "promoting a just society by challenging injustice and valuing diversity." "People are not to be discriminated against based on gender, sexuality, religion, political affiliations, age, race, belief, disability, location, social class, or socioeconomic circumstances" (Toowoomba Catholic Education, 2006).
The Importance of Pedagogy
teaching influences what and how students learn
How teachers teach delivers a set of messages about power, authority, work and learning, it has long term consequences
Teachers worldviews shape their social and political philosophies
Schools must be reoriented from their largely conservative/traditional roles to one which sees them committed to the achievement of social justice and democracy
Racism and bullying in schools
Bullying is, "the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate, or aggressively dominate others. The behaviour is often repeated and habitual. One essential prerequisite is the perception by the bully or others of an imbalance of social or physical power" (Wikipedia, 2014).
aboriginal racism is a current issue occuring in society and in schools, it come from colonialistic attitudes, and an 'us vs them' ideology, it also comes from having a lack of empathy and knowledge regarding aboriginals
It is important to know the back grounds and cultures of students because Alberta has the 2nd largest aboriginal population, and alot of aboriginals are currently living in poverty and facing discrimination
It is important to know the history of the Canadian governments aggressive assimilation techniques and residential schools systems and to make sure students are aware and can build empathy based on others life situations
Being a Reflective Teacher
When becoming a reflective teacher you have to be able to have many key elements like whole heartedness and responsibility.
You have to be able to engage with students constructively and be able to relate to what's important to them and what is in their lives as well as the their school life.
Creating students that are able to become all of the 3 "E's":
Try and integrate more technology into the classroom as well as modern based, inquiry based learning methods better known as Progressivism.
Different Teaching Philosophies
Perrenialism: Classical Education
:learning themes of human condition
Essentialism: Back to the basics
:Early instruction and phonix
Progressivism: Encouragement of self expression
:guiding you on what you develope naturally
:Project and inquiry based learning
:Movement and tables
Social Reconstructivism : teaches social justice to foster good citizens
Behaviourism is a major thing you need to bring into your teaching practices when you are trying to be a reflective teacher
Issues that are brought into the school
Trying to promote a just society by challenging injustice and valuing diversity
Ethical Citizens (Relates to the 3 E's)
Trying to bring out "The Leader in Me" within children: Character education
:Proactive, set goals, prioritize
:fix the situation
:seek to understand then to be understood
Trying to prevent bullying and stereotyping within schools
Keeping racism out of schools
Practice in schools to not have intimidation
Making a school community
Safe and caring classroom environments
Role of the government, legislation's and policies of education in Canada
The School Act authorizes curricula, controls funding and teacher qualifications
The cabinet determines new legislation brought forth and formulates policy and implementation
The freedom of the school board is constrained by our Minister of education Gordon Dirks
Alberta education gives individual power to school boards, and they create laws, curriculum, assessment, policy, and control funding
School boards make local decisions, decide on funding, staffing, hire and fire teachers, modify curriculum etc
School board trustees make policies and appoint superintendents
Government and Teachers
Role of the government, legislation's and policies of education in Canada
At the top is Alberta education, then there are elected MLA's, then ministers, then branches, then school boards, charter schools, then the ATA connected to school boards.
School boards have elected trustees, then superintendents, then principles, and teachers
The Alberta Teachers Association
The ATA functions mainly as a union and for professional development
It promotes and advances public education and it creates safe guards and standards for professional practice
They bargain for salaries, benefits, and teacher welfare (ATA 2015)
The ATA Code of Professional Conduct, "Stipulates minimum standards of professional conduct of teachers," and anyone who violates standards may be subject to a charge of unprofessional conduct (ATA, 2004).
Core values of education focus on: Opportunity, fairness, citizenship, choice, diversity, and excellence
Pedagogical shifts are happening where system and content focus are turning to student and competency based (Ministerial Order 2013)
Competencies are, "Sets of attitudes, skills, and knowledge that are applied to a context for successful learning, are developed over time and through a set of related learner outcomes" (Ministerial Order 2013). The Cross-Curricular Competencies are: Know how to learn, create opportunities, think critically, identify and solve complex problems, manage information, innovate, apply multiple literacies, demonstrate communication and work cooperatively, demonstrate global and cultural understanding,and identify and apply career and life skills" (Ministerial Order, 2013).
The Hidden curriculum is, "a curriculum that is taught without being formally ascribed" (Gosh). It comes from social, political, and cultural parts of society, and societal power structures, like ethnicity, gender, and class that influence education (Gosh).
Issues with discovery based learning/inquiry/project based learning,
"Discovery learning advocates have come up empty. They've failed to produce credible scientifically valid research studies showing this method works..." (Staples, 2014). Math marks have gone down, people are upset with lower scores on standardized tests.
Cautions teachers must consider when implementing social justice include, avoiding political manipulation, especially around young kids (Reynolds, 2012). "Kids must develop emotionally before they can develop politically" (Reynolds, 2012). Social Justice is great to teach kids so they can develop critical thinking and awareness on global issues and social inequalities, but must be taught with caution.
The teaching quality standard states that, "teachers must hold valid authority prior to commencement of employment with a school authority" (Teaching Quality Standard). This consists of gaining an Interim Professional Certificate (valid for three years) then gaining a Permanent Professional Certificate (after two years of successful teaching and evaluation). This maintains professionalism.
"Equity involves trying to understand and give people what they need to enjoy full, healthy lives. Equality in contrast aims to ensure that everyone gets the same things in order to enjoy full, healthy lives. Like equity, equality aims to promote fairness and justice, but can only work if everyone starts from the same place and needs the same things. (Concepts equity and equality, 2014).
Culture is, "The unique system of beliefs, attitudes, customs and behaviours that identify a particular group. Culture norms guide behaviour and determine thoughts and actions" (ATA, 2003).
Cultural Competence is, "agencies and individuals that accept and respect cultural differences [...] and adopt culturally relevant service models in order to better meet the needs of minority populations" (Hanley as cited in ATA, 2003).
Indian Residential Schools:
An 1884 amendment to the Indian Act made attendance in a residential, day, or industrial school mandatory for first nations children. Attendance was mandatory. Students were discouraged from speaking their first language or practicing native traditions, students lived in substandard conditions and endured physical, emotional, and sexual abuse (Story, 2014).
Issues in education are important for teachers to recognize and be aware of so that they can be ready to deal with emerging problems and issues
Bullying in schools can cause serious harm to kids especially if they are having problems at home and have no one they can go to
Situations like these are very dangerous because this can permanently damage the child and could cause them to drop out, give up on their education, or even commit suicide
Teachers should always be aware of whats going on around the school and promote a safe and caring learning environment within their classrooms and be non tolerant of any kind of bullying (physical, verbal, emotional)
Class sizes (how many kids is to many)
zero tolerance policies (if a child gets a 0% they can still pass)
technology (how much should be incorporated?)
hidden curriculum (what values should be promoted)
obesity (health and physical education initiatives)
social justice (political values, differing opinions)
sex ed (what should be taught and when)
full day kindergarten (is it bad? Will it benefit full time parents more?)
inclusion (should kids with special needs always be integrated?)
boys underachievement (why are girls doing better than boys?)
inquiry/project based learning (benefits & disadvantages)
bullying (the effects on both the victim and bully)
curriculum (what should be taught)
poverty (how home life can directly affect a childs learning)
academic deficiency (causes and affects)
Racism (discrimination and prejudice in schools)
3 Pillars of Education are:
1774 Quebec Act, gave minority language rights and the right to practice Catholicism in schools
Egerton Ryerson gave provincial control over curriculum in Canada
1867 BNA act, the right for separate religious minority schools
Mid 1800s is the birth of public education (Dr. Frank Peters Feb.3)
Restorative Justice is, "addressing disruptive behavior in the school an initiative approach to challenging behavior which puts repairing harm done to the relationships above the need for assigning blame and dispensing punishment"
offenders are recognized as having been affected and involved in finding a way forward
the success of the process depends in large measure on the willingness of people to take part and engage (Hopkins 2002)
A few ways to incorporate these ideas into the classroom could be to, have classroom meetings, or open classroom discussions, and also to maintain a safe and caring learning environment.
Safe Learning Environments
With changing times of the future we have to be emotionally sensitive to different topics within the schools so that everyone is feeling safe within them. By paying close attention to gendered spaces (bathrooms) less gossip and bullying will happen
As well, we must be sensitive to gender and minority gendered students and families so that they feel safe, respected, supported and know their information is confidential
(Edmonton Public Schools 2011)
We must become educational leaders especially when it comes to the LGBT students that are more prone to be bullied
As teachers we must be the leaders of society to help show other students that people are different but that it is okay to be different and that one should not be discriminated against because of it
Teaching children morals and standards that don't come prepackaged in the governments curriculum
Teaching children things that they would need to know in the real world to be able to grow and learn as well as accomplish greater things
Teachers use hidden curriculum to help guide children in the right way and teach them good habits like: manners, respect, patience, understanding, to be non-judgemental, leaders, ethical and caring.
These traits are used to help make a well rounded society
Inspiring Education Cont'd
"We need to prepare kids for their future not our past" (Dr. Richard Moniuszko 2009)
There are six core values that come from the 3 E's. These values must be embraced by all teachers and learning community. They should be expressed in every decision related to curriculum, teaching, assessment, policy and governance.
They are: •
(Government of Alberta 2010)
By using inspiring education it will help you as a teacher know the guidelines and what you as a person are representing yourself as because you are teaching those same values to children
Inspiring education relates to
social justice because in the depths of social justice are the 3 E's which come from inspiring education. Social justice itself is based off of the everything inspiring education stands for.
When deciding on what kind of teaching philosophy you are going to have as a teacher a main part to remember is also trying to teach students the "hidden curriculum". Though you may choose to teach like an essentialist, you also have to bring in the morals and values that are not always laid out for you within the government given curriculum.
Different teaching philosophies can also be related to restorative justice even though you may choose a certain way to teach, teaching restorative justice is something every teacher should practice when handling tough situations with students. The type of philosophy you choose as a teacher should not effect the right way you should handle tough situations with bullying and discrimination with children.
Supporting Gender & Sexual Diversity
It is very important to support gender and sexual diversity in the classroom to prevent homophobic bullying and promote awareness of the LGBTQ community
Students should feel safe at school and gender neutral safe spaces should be provided, teachers have the power to make students feel welcome and be non tolerant of homophobic comments
Teachers must create self awareness, avoid assumptions, have a welcome space, support gender non conforming, not 'out' anyone, use respectful terms, and empower students (Leflar, 2015)
Racism and bullying are both related and major issues occurring not only in society, but also in schools. Bullying often happens when a child is viewed as less normal, weird, or different in some way. This can be due to race, culture, or sexual orientation. Teachers must work to promote cultural diversity and awareness and acceptance with regards to these issues.
It is important to not only incorporate cultural learning into the curriculum, but also to dig deeper than the surface level to look at culture. Learning things such as customs, family dynamics, non verbal communication, and attitudes towards elders etc. This can help children from different cultures to feel better understood.
Brackets show how two bubbles connect, like a subtopic
Red arrows connect
Circles are filled with main ideas relating to each of the four themes
Inspiring Education, The Ministerial Order, and the three E's align closely in teaching social justice and fairness over equality. Inspiring education aims to help students become ethical citizens, teaching social justice concepts can promote this, as long as it is done carefully without politically manipulating children or forcing ideas on them that they aren't ready for.
The Ministerial Order, and Inspiring Eduction are promoting, alot of discovery, and inquiry based learning to occur in classrooms. Issues are involved with this as we move away from more traditional learning, children may lose critical thinking skills required to do basic math or reading. A balance should occur between traditional teaching methods and new innovative ones. Creativity and discovery are extremely important skills for children experience, but so are math and literacy skills.
Different teaching philosophies dictate pedagogy, and how you would decide to teach. For example a progressivist teacher would integrate many projects and open ended discovery based learning activities into their classroom, this teaching style is also based on their democratic political views which relates to how they deliver messages about power and authority.
It is important to incorporate Social justice into schools to prevent bullying and racism, and raise awareness on the affects of these. The key points of social justice are ways to solve to bullying. When kids are proactive, set goals, prioritize, seek to understand rather than be understood, and have a positive attitude, this will help to prevent bullying. All of these ideas will help to creative a positive and safe learning environment, where kids can be open with each other and with their teacher.
Restorative practices are ways to help solve issues in education such as bullying, because they look at both sides of the issue, they try to make the victim and bully understand each other, and solve issues within the relationship through community and family support. This method can be very healthy and affective in solving relationship issues or severe bullying occurring in schools because it doesn't just function to punish the bully, it functions to look at the root issues occurring in both the bully and victims lives. It can look at the childs past and help solve past hurt/damage so that they can move forward as healthier and happier children.
We must ensure that abuse doesn't occur to students as it has in the past through Indian Residential Schools. We must learn from the mistakes in education from our past and ensure students today are treated with respect regardless of differences such as race, ethnicity, sexuality, or disability. Inclusion if very important for children to get integrated and socialized with their peers, so that they can function more easily in society.
I (Chantelle) have a progressivist teaching philosophy and really agree with many of the techniques this philosophy represents such as: self expression, discovery learning, and project/inquiry based learning. I really think that if the child is motivated to learn and subject matter can be made to be more interesting this will mean the child will try harder, remember more, and become happy going to school and learning. This decreases drop out rates, and means that school can be a place for children to discover and be excited to be there. I also like the social reconstructivist philosophy because through this you can teach empathy and have children learn about issues in the world around them. This means they can better understand others and know that the world doesn't just revolve around them.
I (Kristen) have both Progressivist as well as essentialist philosophy. I absolutely agree with a Progressivist mindset when teaching children because being able to teach them to be open and discover learning on their own or within groups is a fantastic way to learn things. Giving children the freedom to make their own opinions as well as self express themselves in many different ways. My essentionalist point of view comes from the fact that i do believe in standardized testing because within the sciences that i will be teaching as well as teachers that teach math there is only one right answer when it comes to things. The standardized testing will help children to gain a better memory and as well as have a better mindset towards wanting to do well within school.
Teaching philosophies are involved in the government ministerial order because it incorporates the the 3 E's, and these tie in closely with teaching from a social reconstructivist point, and a progressivist point of view. Becoming an ethical citizen, and engaged thinker with an entrepreneurial spirit is completely intertwined with those philosophies which promote social justice, team work, inquiry and creative thinking and learning, and innovative ways of thinking and learning.
The Cross-Curricular Competencies are: Know how to learn, create opportunities, think critically, identify and solve complex problems, manage information, innovate, apply multiple literacies, demonstrate communication and work cooperatively, demonstrate global and cultural understanding,and identify and apply career and life skills" (Ministerial Order, 2013). These contribute to having a safe learning environment because if a teacher can incorporate communication, cooperation, and cultural understanding, then the learning environment will be safer and more open for students to be able to discuss and share various perspectives and feelings.
The hidden curriculum can come from Eurocentric view points influenced by our North American culture and tradition. Our beliefs which are heavily influenced by our political system and our government do come out in the hidden curriculum. Our legislations and policies effect how we teach and what we can teach.
The teaching quality standard and becoming a reflective teacher are both very important and both must be followed to become a successful teacher. Teachers must maintain a certain standard of professionalism and follow certain rules but also must reflect and look at techniques and ideas that are or aren't working and ways to improve. Together professionalism and reflection can both be used to maintain high standards of teaching.
Being a good agent of change within schools helps children to understand the proper morals and values that are needed within life outside of the school as well being unbiased and understanding that other people that are different than from themselves. By being an agent of change the hidden curriculum that every teacher has, helps to mold and inspire children to be better and more ethical within society. By also making a safe learning environment for children, it helps them to be able to feel comfortable and be more understanding and accepting of other differences because they feel safe to talk about their own.