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World War I

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Joseph Wood

on 1 October 2014

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Transcript of World War I

The Causes of World War I
lliances
ilitarism
N
mperialism
The War to End All Wars
1914-1919
So what caused the
World
to go to
So after all that, why didn't
World War I
make all wars
ationalism
A
M
I
A
ssassination
Militarism:
A policy of glorifying military power and values. Countries like Britain, France and Germany all began to stockpile weapons.
Why did it lead to war?
This led countries to mistrust other countries. Countries were nervous of each other and anxious to use these weapons.
Alliances
A protection system in which countries promise to come to each others side in case of an attack. Some Alliances were secret.
Why did they lead to war?
Countries were bound to help each other. Once the fight started, many countries had to enter the war because of alliances.
Nationalism
Strong feelings of pride in and loyalty to a nation or ethnic group.
Why did this lead to war?
Citizens who have more loyalty to their country are more willing to die for their country.
Nationalists countries put the needs of their country first without considering their impact on others.
Imperialism
Building Empires by making smaller countries your colonies.
How did this cause war?
Competition for colonies, trade and trade routes developed between countries like France and Germany.
Assassination
In 1914, Franz Ferdinand was the
Archduke of the Austrian-Hungary.
While visiting the area of Bosnia, he was shot and killed by Serbian Nationalists.
The nationalists wanted Bosnia to be independent from Austria-Hungary.

"Everybody's nerves are tense. It needs only a spark to set the whole thing off."
Why did it cause war?
This "spark" caused alliances to mobilize. When the dust had settled, the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungry, and the Ottoman Empire had aligned to fight the Allied Powers of Great Britain, Russia, and France.
Central Powers
vs.
Allied Powers
Germany
Austria-Hungry
The Ottoman Empire
Great Britain
France
Russia
The Failed Plan for Peace
Treaty of Versailles
U.S.A.
Great Britain, Italy and France
Punishment
World Peace and Security
Guilt
National Security
Wilson's 14 Points
1-5: How do we make sure the causes of World War I don't happen again?
6-13: Lets create countries based on historical allegiances and nationalities.
14: Lets create The League of Nations: A group that can work together to solve conflicts before they become wars.
The treaty of Versailles
Should the United States join the League?
To ratify or reject the Treaty of Versailles
"The United States assumes no obligation to preserve the territorial integrity of political independence of any other country."
"If the Treaty is not ratified by the Senate, the War will have been fought in vain, and the world will be thrown into chaos."
"If you want another war against civilization then let us go back to the conditions of 1914. If you want the possibility of sending once more our troops and navies to foreign lands, then stay out of the league."
"The United States is the worlds best hope, but if you fetter her in the interests and quarrels of other nations you will destroy her power for good and endanger her very existence."
How was World War I fought?
In the end, the U.S. rejected the Treaty, Europe struggled to rebuild, and the table was set for a future
Should the United States get involved?
President Wilson pledges Neutrality...
Neutrality also allowed us to make loans and sell supplies to both sides.
Neutrality allowed the United states to steer clear of European infighting.
... but then Europe has other ideas.
May 7, 1915
German U-boats sink the Lusitania
The Zimmerman Note
February, 1917

A note proving that Germany was plotting against the U.S.
Germany promised to help Mexico "take back" California if they helped during the war.
April 2, 1917
"Neutrality is no longer feasible..."
April 4, 1917
Congress declares war on Germany
Transforming from Peace to War
To be able to fight, America first had to solve a few issues
Issue 1: How do we pay for war?
Solution:
1) Raise Taxes
2) Sell War Bonds

War bonds were sold to citizens to raise money. Bonds are promises to pay back the money borrowed with interest. Buying bonds was seen as very patriotic and a way to help the soldiers.
Issue 2: Food is needed by the Soldiers.
Solution:
1) Encourage less consumption
2) Victory Gardens
Issue 2: We need more weapons and war supplies.
Solution: The War Industries Board
Trenches and New Technology: A deadly combination
Technology transforms combat
Fighting in the Trenches
Problem 1: War Guilt Clause
Problem 3: New Boarders
Problem 4: No Oversight
Disease, like Trench foot was common if soldiers stood in damp, unsanitary, cold conditions too long.
The new machine gun can fire 600 bullets per minute.
Chemical weapons, like mustard gas, used toxic agents to kill.
Tanks gave troops cover when moving from one area to another.
World War I was also the first war in which airplanes were used as a weapon.
In 1918, the Germans made one final push
to capture France.
8,000,000 dead
21,000,000 injured
The War
winds to an end
By 1918, The Central Powers were outnumbered on land and ineffective at sea.
Germany Surrendered on 11-11-1918

The push was ineffective.

Two months later the Allies mounted a push the crushed Germany's main supply line.
From 1914 to 1917,
"The Great War" raged in Europe as the U.S. watched from afar.
Germans felt unfairly punished. They saw this as a slap in the face by the rest of the world. They blamed their leaders for giving up. They also blamed the Jewish people for
"Stabbing them in the back."

Land was again divided, often without knowing if the people of new countries would get along.
The League of Nations was never given any real power to solve problems. There was still no organization that could help settle disputes before they became major wars.
?
changes.
Face to Face combat is no longer needed.
1. War Guilt Clause
Americans were encouraged to plant Victory Gardens and conserve food on
"Meatless Monday"and "Wheatless Wednesday".
The government took factories over and told them what goods to produce and how much to make.
"Big Bertha" could fire projectiles further and faster than ever before.
made war far more deadly. They also made war far less personable.
New
Both sides began using Trenches to protect themselves from the new, deadly weapons.
Fighting was not just for land...
Fighting in the Sky
...and at Sea
Germany used
u-boats to control the seas.
So the allies used a convoy system to protect their ships.
?
a formally ratified agreement to stop fighting between countries
2. Military Restrictions
3. Territorial Changes
4. The League of Nations
Creates a "Fragile Peace
1) Germany must accept 100% of the blame for the war.

2) Germany must pay reparations (money) to the countries hurt by the war.
1) Germany can't put any troops in the Rhineland for 15 years.

2) Germany must reduce its military to 100,000 troops.
Land was divided amongst the winners with no commitment to "self-determination"
Wilson's dream of a "League of Nations"was included to provide collective security to its members .
Problem 2: Reparations
Paying for the war killed the German economy. The value of German money tanked and German citizens saw their savings become worthless.
Review Time...
Great Britain
United States
France
Italy
European countries are more concerned with making sure Germany was punished and stopped from making war again.
Warm Up:
The Rise and Use of Power: World War I
Why do people fight? Come up with as many reasons for fighting as you can.
Trench Warfare was slow and painful.
Warm Up:
The Rise and Use of Power: World War I
Pick one of the reasons for the beginning of WWI (MANIA) and summarize why it led the world to war.
Warm Up:
The Rise and Use of Power: World War I
Describe one of problems with the Treaty of Versailles.
Full transcript