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IA & IIA Presentation

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Alex Sambo

on 22 October 2013

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Transcript of IA & IIA Presentation

Alkali metals are the elements located in Group IA of the periodic table.
The alkali metals are :
Lithium Sodium
Potassium Rubidium
Cesium Francium

Alkali metals have low electronegativities. They react readily with nonmetals.
Lithium
Comes from the Greek word, lithus, meaning stone. It is the lightest metal and least dense solid element. It is typically stored in mineral oil. It was discovered in Sweden by Johann A. Arfwedson in 1897 while analyzing a petalite ore. Lithium can be used for heat-resistant glass and ceramics, lubricants, alloys, dry cells, storage batteries etc.
Potassium
It comes from the English word potash and Latin word kalium. It was the first metal isolated by electrolysis. It oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive with water. It is the seventh most abundant element. It is essential for plant growth and is found in most soils, accumulating in plant cells, and can therefore be found in fruits like banana and in vegetables. It was discovered in England by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807. It is mainly used as a fertilizer and is a nutrient necessary in the human diet.
Rubidium
It is from the Latin word rubidius or dark red. It is the second most electropositive element of the non-radioactive alkali metals. It ignites spontaneously in air and reacts violently with water. It was discovered in Germany by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchoff in 1861 through flame spectroscopy. It is used as a gas scavenger in vacuum, a photocell component, thermoelectric generator etc.
Francium
It is the heaviest of the alkali metals and one of the most electropositive elements. It is a by-product of the decay of Actinium. It was discovered in 1939 by Marguerite Perey in France. The half-life of its longest-lived isotope is only 22 minutes. It has no commercial applications and usually just used for research.
Their densities are lower than those of other metals.
Alkali metals have one electron in their outer shell, which is loosely bound. This gives them the largest atomic radii of the elements in their respective periods.
Their low ionization energies result in their metallic properties and high reactivities.
An alkali metal can easily lose its valence electron to form the univalent cation.
Hydrogen
NOTE:
Hydrogen is NOT an Alkali Metal
It is grouped with the Alkali Metals because it has an electron configuration of ns like the Alkali Metals.
1
In short, It has one electron it its outer energy level, like the Alkali Metals.
In Greek, Hydrogen means water-forming. It is the most abundant and lightest element. Hydrogen as water is essential to life. It was discovered in England by Henry Cavendish in 1776 by mixing metals with acids. Hydrogen can be used for rocket fuel, process fossil fuels, produce ammonia, luminous paint etc.
Sodium
It comes from the English word soda. The symbol Na comes from the Latin word, natrium. It’s only stable isotope is isotope 23. It is the sixth most abundant element. It is found as salt in large quantities in underground mines and seawater. It was first discovered in England by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807 through the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide. It can be used for table salt, soap and deicing agent (clearing ice from a wing of a plane).
Cesium
It comes from the Latin word caesius or sky blue. It is the softest metal and it is liquid near room temperature. It is the most electropositive stable element. It was discovered by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchoff in 1860. It is used as a drilling fluid, for atomic clocks, photoelectric cells etc.
The metals are silver, soft and all have low density, melting points and boiling points.
Beryllium
Incredibly toxic, Beryllium is a rare element in the crust of the earth. It is also chemically similar to Magnesium. Discovered by Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin. Usually extracted from the gemstone Beryl. It is used mostly for X-ray tubes and military
Magnesium
The eighth most abundant element in the crust and fourth most abundant as a whole, Magnesium is commonly used as a metal (3rd most used in building structures) . Magnesium is also an important part of ATP synthesis and is a part of a healthy diet. First discovered/made by Sir Humphry Davy.
Calcium
Alkaline Earth Metals are the elements found in Group IIA of the periodic table.
The Alkaline Earth Metals are:
Beryllium Magnesium
Calcium Strontium
Barium Radium
All of the Metals have two electrons in their valence shell, compared to Alkaline Metals’ one.
All the metals are naturally occurring.
Both Alkaline Earth Metals and Alkaline Metals react with Halogens forming halides.
A reactive and soft metal, Calcium has the lightest density of the Alkali Earth Metals. Calcium was used since the prehistoric times, as limestone for buildings. It is not naturally found in its elemental state. Calcium is also an essential part of everyone’s diet because it keeps your teeth and bones healthy and strong. Calcium also has 4 stable isotopes.
A highly reactive metal, Strontium today is used mostly for the cathode rays of television sets. Named after the Scottish village of Strontian and discovered by Adair Crawford and William Cruickshank. One of Strontium’s isotopes 90Sr, is a by-product of Nuclear Fallout and emits a huge amount of beta rays. As a result, it is currently being studied by scientists for use as a power source.
Strontium
Barium
Barium is another highly reactive metal. It is chemically similar to Strontium, while being even more radioactive. It was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy. Historically, Barium has not had many commercial uses, but it is mainly used for removing gases from vacuum tubes.
Radium
An incredibly radioactive metal discovered by Marie Curie and Pierre Curie, who extracted it from uraninite. It is the heaviest alkali earth metal. It is also luminescent, meaning it glows. Radium has 25 isotopes, however, none of them are stable. Its uses are derived from its extreme radioactivity. For example, it was used in Rutherford’s gold foil experiment as the alpha ray source.
QUIZ
1.
Calcium: Milk
as
_______ : Banana
2.
Which is NOT an Alkali Metal?
3.
Name the element:
comes from the Latin word "natrium"
5.
Hydrogen is part
of what group?
A. Magnesium
B. Lithium
C. Cesium
D. Rubidium
4.
Both Alkali Metals and Alkaline Earth Metals react with _____ to form Halides.
What is the other group of elements that it reacts with?
A.Alkali Metals
B.Alkaline Earth Metals
C.Noble Gases
D.None of the above
BONUS
What's the difference between Alkali Metals and Alkaline Earth Metals (regarding valence) ?
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