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The Great Depression:
Transcript of The Great Depression:
Refers to a system for buying and selling stocks or a place for people to buy and sell stocks. New York, Toronto, and Montreal all have stock markets respectively in 1930s. The Stock Market crushed in October 29, 1929 and became one of the factors to cause the Depression.
The Great Depression:
Canada in the 1930s
For SS11 / March 2014 / Teresa Gao
World Market Prices:
The World Market Prices control the economy of the whole world. The floating of the prices influences the prices of goods in every country. For example, when the price of wheat on the world market in 1927 began to fall and the Canada and U.S. had to face the overproduction of their goods. This was one factor of the Depression in 1930s.
This is the money which is given to other countries or people to offset their lost. Germany was obligated to give payments to Britain and France for the World War I damage. It slowed down Germany's economic recovery.
This word means a long period of time when the economy was weak and a lot of workers were unemployed. The Desperate Years in Canada was 1930s. There were three factors to cause the depression. First, the price of wheat on the world market began to fall in 1927. Both Canada and U.S. faced the problem of overproduction. Second, U.S. adopted the policy of protectionism. U.S. raised the tariffs to protect their own goods. Thirdly, Germany could not pay the enormous reparations to British and France under the 1919 peace agreement.
The Weakness which were illustrated by Depression
Primary resources refer to the raw materials. One weakness of Canada which was demonstrated by the Depression was Canada’s dependency on the export of primary resources. The two main exports were wheat and newsprint.
Ties to U.S. economy
Canada’s economy tied to the U.S. economy closely. U.S. became Canada’s biggest trading partner and investor. When the U.S. economy crushed, Canada’s economy was hit particularly hard.
People's Life During Depression
This is the things or money which government gives to victims after wars or diseases. Canadian government gave the people who had no stable income some relief payments during the desperate years. Government also set relief camp to offer the jobs opportunities.
Although the private charities helped the poor people during the Desperation, some people still committed suicide because they could not bear the hardships.
The disastrous drought hit the Prairies in 1928 and lasted almost eight years. The drought and poverty had forced many families to leave their farms and move to other place.
This is the financial aid which government gives to the unemployed people. Canadian government gave this to thousands of people during the Desperate Years. However, the experience to get the pogey was humiliating.
Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act
In 1935, the Federal government passed the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration Act. This Act helped farmers build irrigation systems and reservoirs.
Minorities' Lives During Depression
During the Desperation, the Aboriginal Families on relief could receive only five dollars a month. They were also expected to live out of the reserve, although during the last decades the conditions on the reserves were too poor to live.
Many of the Chinese immigrants were starving by 1932 in Vancouver. Some of the destitute Chinese were begging in the street. However, some of them said they’d rather starve than accept relief.
This means the prejudice specifically against Jews. When immigrants competed for limited jobs, they were viewed with hostility especially Jews, because of the anti-Semitism.
End to Immigration
Because of the Depression, many immigrants in Canada had no jobs. They were starving and some of them even committed suicide. Almost 10,000 immigrants were deported from Canada in the first half of the Depression. Hence, the government stopped the immigration in 1931.
This is a system which government uses to raise the price of import good to protect the domestic production. The U.S. government raises the tariff on foreigner goods to encourage citizens to buy U.S. Goods. However, this policy slowed down the world trades.
The leader of Liberals Party during 1930s was Mackenzie King. King’s government thought the Depression would end soon so they didn’t help the provinces governments. In 1937, The Rowell-Sirois Commission was passed and the Liberals thought the Federal government should have more control over taxation. The Liberals kept the policy of isolationists and kept a pacifist position.
William Lyon Mackenzie King was the leader of Liberals Party and the Prime Minister of Canada during 1921-1930 and 1935-1948. When the Desperate Years began, King was totally unprepared. He believed the Depression would pass quickly and the unemployment was not a big issue. When the Canadian asked the Federal government for financial help, King told them it was Municipal and Provincial governments’ responsibility. King even said he wouldn’t give “a five-cent piece” to a Tory provincial government. King’s attitude led him lost his election in 1930 to R.B Bennett, the leader of Conservatives. In 1935, because Bennett could not deal with the Depression, King became the Prime Minister again. He created The Rowell-Sirois Commission in 1937. He kept isolationists and adopted a pacifist position.
This is a kind of policy which means the country doesn’t care about the affairs out of their boundary. Over the events of 1930s, Canada Prime Minster King and Canadians stayed isolationist.
This term means strongly disagree with the conflicts or wars, etc. and prefer peace. After World War I, many Canadians thought the Treaty of Versailles was too harsh and 60,000 Canadians dead during World War I. Hence they kept a pacifist position. When Germany took its action during 1930s, many Canadian thought the citizens should not involve into the war in Europe before Canada was threatened.
Prime Minister King brought this Royal Commission in 1937. This commission recommended the Federal government should control the taxation and it would give all the provinces equalization payments. This Commission also suggested the federal government should be responsible for the unemployment insurance and social benefits.
The tension between provinces and Federal government was always very serious. Many voters did not satisfy with the Federal government's solution and action. Many provinces formed their own party to satisfy their citizens' demands. In 1937, the Rowell-Sirois Commission examined the bitter issue between provincial and federal government.
Duplessis was a former Conservative and he brought the Union Nationale Party to power in 1936. He blamed the social and economic issues on the English-speaking Canadians in Quebec. His didn’t keep his promise during his first term and he did little to improve the economic and social problems. He remained premier until 1959.
Union Nationale Party was brought to power in Quebec in 1936 by Maurice Duplessis. This was a nationalist French-Canadian party which depended on the support of the Roman Catholic Church and rural voters. The party blamed the issues on the English minority in Quebec.
He was elected in 1933 to be the Premier of British Columbia. He was a Liberal and believed in greater provincial spending power. He promised voters a “Little New Deal” which was based on the New Deal in the U.S.
Little New Deal
The British Columbia Premier Dufferin Pattullo promised voters the “Little New Deal” in the 1933 election. It was based on the New Deal. Little New Deal brought the reforms to shorten the work day, increase the minimum wage. However, the Little New Deal was challenged by the Federal government.
Each province can receive equal money from Federal government. Then they can provide the same level of services for their citizens. In 1937, Prime Minister King introduced The Rowell-Sirios Commission which suggested the equalization payments. It also recommended the Federal government should control over the taxation.
The leader of Conservatives Party was R.B. Bennett. The Conservatives believed the Federal Government should give financial help to provinces governments. His government created work-creation programs. Conservatives didn’t support the New Deal at first.
The leader of the Conservatives Party, R.B. Bennett became the Prime Minister of Canada after King in 1935. His government gave the provinces $20 million for work-creation program, but this amount of money was not useful to improve the economy. Bennett’s “blast” was to raise tariffs by 50 per cent to protect Canadian goods. Gradually, he became the target of the public. He banned the Communist Party and arrested several people in 1931. His government also created work camp for the unemployment. At first he didn’t support the New Deal policy, but he changed his mind before the 1935 federal election. Because he could not deal with the Depression, he lost his position in 1935 to King.
The Prime Minister Bennett (1931-1935) and his government created work camps for unemployed workers. Work camps were set in the woods where were isolated from the society. The workers were paid twenty cents a day and given board and room. The conditions and the food were terrible. Over 170,000 men went to these camps.
In 1935, over a thousand men in British Columbia gathered in Vancouver and protested against camp condition. Under the leadership of the Relief Camp Workers Union, workers decided to go to Ottawa. When they reached Regina, only the leaders were allowed to go to Ottawa and visited Prime Minister Bennett. However, Bennett thought they were radicals and trouble-makers. He even called one of the leader Slim Evans a "criminal and a thief". Evans called Bennett "a liar". RCMP cleared the trekkers in the stadium of Regina. One man was killed and 130 men were arrested.
When federal government closed the relief camps in 1937 and provincial government reduced the payments, many people in Vancouver "sit-ins" at different buildings. In April 1937, 1,600 protesters occupied Gallery, post offices and Georgia Hotel and refused to leave. For the next two days there were battles between police and "sitdowners".
The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was formed in the West in 1932. The leader was J.S. Woodsworth. It was a socialist party and appealed to the Canadians who were not satisfied with the government’s response to the Depression. In its program, the Regina Manifesto, it supported the public ownership of key industries and social programs which could help the people in need of money and create employment. CCF provided a new choice for the mainstream. CCF was the forerunner of the New Democratic Party.
Woodsworth was the leader of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) which was formed in 1932.
The Social Credit Party’s leader was William Aberhart. It won the 1935 election in Alberta. The party supported the social credit theory which was based on capitalism. The party believed the government should release money into the economy.
“Bible Bill” Aberhart was the leader of Social Credit Party. He used to be a high school teacher and a charismatic preacher in Calgary. He won a huge victory in the 1935 election in Alberta. He came to power based on the popularity of his theory of social credit. He adopted the social credit theory and he promised every citizen a “basic dividend” of twenty-five dollars a month to buy necessities. However, this social credit was disallowed by the Supreme Court.
The general secretary of the Communists Party in Canada in 1931 was Tim Buck. The Communists Party believed in the public ownership of industries. The Bennett’s government was afraid that the Communists would overthrow the government so the federal government banned the Communists Party and arrested several people including Tim Buck in 1931. In the Soviet Union, the leader of the Communists Party after Lenin was Josef Stalin. However, under his leadership, the Soviet Union became a totalitarian state.
He was the general secretary of the Communist Party in Canada during 1930s. He was arrested by R.B. Bennett government because Bennett was afraid that the Communist Party would overthrow his government.
Stalin became the leader of the Communist Party after the death of Lenin in the Soviet Union. He was” the man of steel” as well as the dictator of the Soviet Union. He was a cruel leader whose policies caused the death of millions of Soviet workers. He made the Soviet Union to become a totalitarian state.
This word means the whole country and all aspects of the citizens’ lives were under the control of an autocratic leader. Under the leadership of Josef Stalin who was from Communist Party, the Soviet Union became a totalitarian state.
National Socialist Party
National Socialist Party was also known as Nazi Party. They were the most power fascist party and they were in German. Their leader was Adolf Hitler. The Nazi also did a lot of terrible things. They set concentration camps and sent the people they thought undesirable into it. By 1945, they had killed more than six million people in the Holocaust.
A kind of government which is totally opposed the democracy. People have to follow the dictator. This kind of government is very nationalistic and relies on police power and military to maintain their control of the whole country. In 1922 of Italy, Benito Mussolini or Il Duce (“the leader”) created a fascist government. The Fascist government used the propaganda to promote their country.
Benito Mussolini or Il Duce (“the leader”) got the power in Italy in 1922. He created a fascist government. Soon, there were other fascist parties based on his system in other countries.
This word means lacking money extremely. In 1937, when government closed the relief camp and reduce the relief payment, many people were destitute.
The Regina Manifesto was the program of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF). This platform mainly wanted to remove the system of capitalism and replaced it by socialism.
Hitler was the leader of the German National Socialist Party, or Nazi Party. Since 1923, he and his followers had gathered the support from the public by criticizing the weak German government and the humiliating terms of the Treaty of Versailles. He came to power because of the Depression. In 1933, Nazi party controlled the German parliament. He was known as der Fuhrer (the leader). He was the dictator of Germany.
This means the mass killing of the people in Europe especially Jewish people by the Nazi government during World War II. By 1945, the Germany Nazi government had murdered over six million Jews, Roma (Gypsies), Slavs, and other people they considered undesirable in the Holocaust.
Kristallnacht means "Crystal Night". On November 9, 1938, Nazi attacked the Jewish business across Germany. Afterwards, many streets were full of broken glass. That's why it had the name of Kristallnacht. The Nazi set up concentration camps to arrest the non-Aryans people. Finally, their cruel action became the Holocaust.
The five girls were born in Corbeil, northern Ontario. When their parents were not able to raise them, they were taken into the care of the Ontarian government. Over three million people visited the special hospital where they lived and watch their daily lives through a one-way screen. The Ontario government earned millions of money from the quints. Several decades later, the public figured out that these five girls didn’t have a normal life and they didn’t get the money they should have from the government.
Owl spent his latter lives protecting the Canadian forests and beaver. His books were best-sellers and he made movies. He was the most famous Canadian at that time. However, after his death in 1938, people found out that he was actually an Englishman whose name was Archie Belaney.
Distraction From Despair
Try to pull the country out of Depression
John M. Keynes
John Maynard Keynes, a leading British economist who believed the government should “jump start” the economy by spending money creating working programs in the Depression. If the government created a lot of jobs, people could get back to jobs again and they would get money. Once they had money, they would spend money and the demand of the goods would increase and finally get out of the Depression. His idea was supported by U.S president Roosevelt.
Franklin Roosevelt became the U.S. president in 1933. He fully supported John Maynard Keynes’ theory and he introduced a “New Deal” which could offer a lot of jobs for the public.
New Deal was created by the U.S. president Franklin Roosevelt. The main idea of it was to create numerous public work programs for the unemployed workers. Roosevelt introduced the Social Security Act to provide social assistance programs. The New Deal coat U.S. billions of money. It didn’t pull the U.S. out of the Depression but it helped the million people survive.
Financial Aid means the government gave money to the provincial government. During the Depression, King refused to give the financial aid to provincial government. Roosevelt’s Social Security Act gave financial aid to the people who need money.
The Foreshadowing of the World War II
This is a policy to buy off concessions to maintain peaceful. During 1930s, Western leaders didn’t want to cause another war so they adopted the policy of appeasement. In September 1938, British and France agreed to let Hitler take over part of Czechoslovakia in the Munich Conference. At first they thought this appeasement could be useful. However, Hitler broke his promise.
Impact of Treaty of Versailles
The League of Nation was established by the Treaty of Versailles. Because of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany had to pay a large number of reparations to British and France. This was one factor to cause the Depression during 1930s. Since 1923, Adolf Hitler used Germans humiliation sense towards the Treaty of Versailles to gather support. Many Canada thought the Treaty of Versailles was too harsh.
Japan and Manchuria
Italy and Abyssinia
In the spring of 1935, Italy invaded Abyssinia. This independent Africa nation fought hard against Italy and won the support of the world. The League of Nation voted to a sanction against Italy and Italy had no oil. France and Britain wanted Italy's support of other things so they didn’t want to blame Italy.
Invasion of the Rhineland
In 1936, Hitler and his troops went into the Rhineland where was demilitarized by the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler didn't punished by the League of Nation.
Invasion of Poland (Sept. 1, 1939)
On September 1, 1939, German invaded Poland, which started the World War II.
In 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria which was one Chinese industrial province. Chinese wanted the help of League of Nation. The League tried to negotiate but failed because Japan withdrew its membership from the League.
The St. Louis
The St. Louis was an ocean liner with 900 Jewish refugees in 1939. When it approached the east coast of Canada, they were refused to dock. The liner had to return to Europe and many of the Jewish died in the concentration camps later.