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The Palestinian Question
Transcript of The Palestinian Question
It is imperative that in order to have a knowledgeable grasp of the Palestinian Question, a thorough reading of its regional history must first be done in order to have a clear understanding of the cultural, ethnic, and legal conflicts that are currently present in the issue. Events Leading to Israel's Creation Held in the year of 1897 of August 29 to 31, it formulated the Basel program, founded the Zionist Organization, and made the Hatikvah as its anthem. Contemporary Era The existence of a Jewish state has further escalated tensions within the Arabic region. Arab states wish to get rid of Israel from the Middle East. Armed conflict has affected other factors such as economic, social, politcal, et al. Basic Info Capital City: Beirut
Government Type: Republic
Independence: 22 November 1943
Current Head of State: President Michel Sulayman (since 25 May 2008)
Current Head of Government: Prime Minister Najib Miqati (since 7 July 2011)
Total Territorial Area: 10,400 sq km (terrestrial and fluvial)
Bordering Countries: Israel & Syria Israel Basic Info Capital City: Tel Aviv
Government Type: Parliamentary Democracy
Independence: 14 May 1948
Current Head of State: President Shimon Peres (since 15 July 2007)
Current Head of Government: Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu (since 31 March 2009)
Total Territorial Area: 20,770 sq km (terrestrial and fluvial)
Bordering Countries: Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria 1. CIA Factbook
2. Jewish Virtual Library: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org
3. History of Lebanon, Our Lady of Lebanon Maronite Catholic Church
4. History of Lebanon, Lebanese Global Information Center: http://www.lgic.org/en/history.php
5. History World: http://www.historyworld.net/
6. Biblical Scriptures (New International Version)
7. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/Declaration+of+Establishment+of+State+of+Israel.htm
8. Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949 - 1993 by Yezid Sayigh
9. Report by the United Kingdom on the Mandate of Palestine and Transjordan: http://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/A87D21F4E57F2D0F052565E8004BACE0
10. Israel: A History by Martin Gilbert Sources: 1 1 The Jewish Prophet Abraham Even before the state of Israel was proclaimed, the conflict between Arabs and Jews had already been in existence. These people had problems with regards to their land, leadership, people, all coming from the degradation of religions, culture, et al. 2 For 500 years, the Phoenicians dominated the trade routes of the Mediterranean, spanning territories such as Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, Gibraltar, lower coastal regions of the Iberian Peninsula (now known as Spain and Portugal) , and of course, what is now known as modern day Lebanon, Palestine, and Israel. Even with the subsequent conquests by the Assyrians (875 – 608 BCE), the Babylonians (585 – 538 BCE), the Persians (538 BCE – 333 CE), and the Greeks (333 – 64 BCE), areas within the Lebanese-Palestinian region remained a vital trade hub in the Mediterranean coast due to the cosmopolitan heritage of the Canaanites which made these people able to easily adapt to different cultures present in the environment. The land which is now known as Israel, Palestine, and Lebanon was under Phoenician rule from 4000 BCE up to 875 BCE when the Assyrians invaded the region. The Canaanites who inhabited the region were called “Phoenicians” because of the Greek terminology (phoinos means ‘red’ in Greek) attributed to them due to the purple dye that they produced from murex seashells. Historical Origins The Jewish people trace their origin to Abraham who comes from the city of UR in Babylonia. Jewish mythos says that his father is an idol merchant. He questioned the faith of his father and searched for the truth. He came to believe that the entire universe was created by one man and taught his belief to others.
Eventually this one God that he was worshipping called to him, and made him an offer: if Abraham would leave his home and his family, then this creator would make him a great nation and bless him. Abraham accepted this offer, and the covenant between this creator and the Jewish people was established. Abraham had a son who is Isaac and he was called the ancestor of the Jewish people. Jewish Mythos
The rule of Israelites in the land of Israel starts with the conquests of Joshua (ca. 1250 BCE). The period from 1000-587 BCE is known as the "Period of the Kings". The most noteworthy kings were King David (1010-970 BCE), who made Jerusalem the capital of Israel; and his son Solomon (Shlomo, 970-931 BCE), who built the first temple in Jerusalem as prescribed in the Tanach (Old Testament). Jewish Conquests Solomon, inheriting a stable and United Kingdom of Israel, was free to indulge in the arts of peacetime. The Bible described his court as one of oriental wealth and splendour (there is no independent archaeological evidence of this). This wealth was achieved not by conquest but by trade, using a fleet of ships which bring to Israel 'gold, silver, ivory, apes and peacocks.
Solomon dies in about 920, starting the secessions of the Jewish tribes from the kingdom. Kingdom of Israel With the conquest of the regions, which now composes of Israel, Jordan, and Palestine, under the age of “Pax Romania”, intellectual and economic activities flourished, especially with cities such as Byblos, Sidon, and Tyre.
These cities were the center of trade between Rome and India due to its strategic geographical location. Economic prosperity gained through trade led to a surge of urban development; temples, palaces and the first School of Law in history were built (LGIC, 2005) throughout the region. The Roman Empire separated into two states during 330 C.E. Byzantine Empire is the name given to the eastern part of the Roman Empire when Constantinople became the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 C.E. in which the eastern half included Palestine, where a significant amount of Jews lived.
Jewish communities appeared in the Byzantine Empire from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 C.E. to the Ottoman conquest of the city in 1453 C.E. Byzantine Rule The judicial status of the Jews under the Byzantine Empire was distinctive through the entire history of the Byzantine Empire, due to the fact that Jews were not members of the Eastern Orthodox faith, which was declared as the official religion of the empire.
Jews were thought to be responsible for the purification of Jesus. Hence, throughout the history of Byzantine Empire, especially after Christianity increased in its popularity, Jews living under the Byzantine Empire were forced by the empire to convert. The Crusades, particularly the First Crusade, caused difficulties towards the Jews. Although acts such as unjust murder, rape and bestiality were officially prohibited by the Vatican, the crusaders destroyed and pillaged Jewish and Arab communities within the Palestinian region.
One of the main goals of the crusaders was to bring all non- believers to the Christian faith. The sermons done by the Catholic priests generated intolerance towards Arabs and Jews, believing that all non-Christians will face eternal damnation if they are not saved. Jews, Jerusalem, and the Crusades Hence, Jews and Arabs allied with each other to defend Jerusalem against the crusaders. Division of the Jewish Kingdom In 931 B.C.E., Rehoboam succeeded Solomon as the next King of Israel. However, all Jewish tribes, excluding Judah and Benjamin, refused to acknowledge the succession. Tensions quickly escalated when King Rehoboam did not agree with the tribes on lessening taxes and other burdens imposed by his father. The Jewish tribes revolted against King Rehoboam and the House of David. The tribes of Judah and Benjamin remained loyal towards the king, thus the northern half of Israel was continued to be called the 'Kingdom of Israel. In 732 B.C.E., The Kingdom of Israel (Northern) was conquered by the Assyrians. The Kingdom of Judah remained as one of the few bastions of Judaism until its conquest by Babylonia in 586 B.C.E. by Nebuchadnezzar II. Many Jews were either deported or, under harsh conditions, were enticed to go to Mesopotamia, Babylon (both cities being in modern day Iraq), and Persia (Iran). Jewish Diaspora The regions of Palestine and Lebanon were subsequently conquered by the Romans under General Pompey in 63 B.C.E. Many Jews revolted during the subsequent years under "Pax Romana", however, non-succeeded. A letter written in 2 November 1917 by U.K. Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour to Baron Rothschild, a prominent Jewish leader in Britain. Balfour Declaration The Ottomans, including the Central Powers, were defeated by the Allied powers. Lebanon is administered under France while Palestine is administered under the United Kingdom. World War I Started with the assassination of Austrian-Hungarian Archduke Ferdinand by Serbian Gavrilo Pincip. Contents within the letter expressed views for the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine. It was later incorporated in the British Mandate for Palestine. French Mandate for Lebanon (and Syria) 19th Century persecution of Jews in Europe led to the Establishment of the First Zionist Congress. League of Nations mandate that partitioned the territories of the Ottoman Empire. Six states were created under the mandate:
1. Greater Lebanon (1920)
2. Damascus (1920)
3. Aleppo (1920)
4. Alawites (1920)
5. Jabal Druze (1921)
6. Sanjak of Alexandretta (1921) Alawite, Aleppo, Damascus, Alexandretta and Jabal Druz unified to create the Syrian Republic. Greater Lebanon became the Lebanese Republic in 23 May 1926. Legal and Administrative instrument formally confirmed by the League of Nations on 24 July 1922 which administered Palestine and Transjordan until "they can stand alone" British Mandate for Palestine Plans for Palestine to be a home for the Jewish community Plans for Transjordan to be under the Hashemite Family Jewish Zionists slowly collided with Arab Nationalist under the mandate, causing tensions within the region. Greater persecution in Europe forced many Jews to migrate in Palestine, especially with the rise of Hitler and Nazism 1930s The Haavara Agreement was formulated by Germany, after three months of discussion with the Zionist Federation of Germany.
Germany was to help German Jews migrate to Palestine at the exchange that they will have to give up most of their assets before departing Large influx of Jewish migration led to the Arab Revolts of 1936 - 1939 due to conflicting nationalist and zionist relations The killing of 6 million Jews during the Holocaust. Started in 9 - 10 November 1938 with the 'Night of the Broken Glass' leading up to the Final Solution of Adolf Hitler. World War II Dependence on oil forced the U.K. to delay plans for the creation of a Jewish state in hopes of having amicable relations with the Arabs.
With the preference of U.K. towards the Arabs, Palestinian Jews formed groups, such as the Jewish Resistance Movement, in hopes of gaining independence. Post-World War II Pretext for the Night of the Broken Glass was the assassination of German diplomat Ernst vom Rath Unified Jewish resistance was quelled in July 1946 after the bombing of the British Military Headquarters in King David Hotel, Tel Aviv. The U.K. requests the General Assembly to make recommendations for the future of Palestine. United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine UN sends a delegation from the Special Committee on Palestine with regards to the partition. Arab Higher Committee boycotts the meeting. Subsequent deliberations leads to the creation of Resolution 181, calling for a two state solution and making Jerusalem an international city. The General Assembly's vote with regards to the partition was met with discontent within the Arabic community Palestinian Civil War Regardless of the ongoing Civil War, the State of Israel was declared independent on 14 May 1948. Jewish Independence and the State of Israel The Arab Liberation Army was formed in 1947. Its main purpose was the prevention of the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine. Subsequently, the Civil War in Palestine moved into its second phase with the intervention of the Arab states, thus starting the Arab Israeli War which lasted until the 1949 Ceasefire. 2 3 4 4
11. The United Jerusalem Foundation: http://www.unitedjerusalem.org/
12. Special Committee on Palestine: http://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/07175DE9FA2DE563852568D3006E10F3
13. The Illustrated History of the Roman Empire: http://www.roman-empire.net/
14. History of World War I - BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/
15. French Mandate for Lebanon: http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/IMG/pdf/III_-_Protmand_modifie_mandat.pdf
16. World War II Timeline: http://www.worldwar-2.net/
17. Resolution 181 (II): http://www.cfr.org/un/un-general-assembly-resolution-181-ii-palestine/p11191
18. Resolution 339 (1973): http://www.prospectsforpeace.com/Resources/UN/UNSCR339.pdf.pdf
19. Camp David Accords (Israel Foreign Ministry): http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace%20Process/Guide%20to%20the%20Peace%20Process/Camp%20David%20Accords
20. Oslo Accords - U.S. Department of State: http://history.state.gov/milestones/1990-2000/Oslo 6 5 6 2 5 6 3 4 10 4 10 13 10 13 2 2 10 2 7 10 14 9 10 15 4 8 9 10 16 10 16 2 9 17 9 9 10 2 9 10 Also known as the P.L.O. Founded on 28 May 1964 during the Arab League Summit. It considers itself to be the representatives of the Palestinian People. Its main goal is the "liberation of Palestine". Palestinian Liberation Organization Many factors contributed to the start of the Six Day War, such as repercussions felt from the Suez Crisis when Egypt tried to nationalize the Suez Canal. Six Day War The Israelis caught wind of the Arabs plan for invasion, in which they initiated 'Operation Focus', a preemptive military strike against the Arab military. Its first Chairman was Ahmad Al-Shukeiri (1964-67) 8 There were constant cross-border armed attacks between the Israelis and the Arabs. Egypt and Jordan signed a defense pact on 30 May 1967. Iraq deployed troops to Jordan soon after. The Israelis won the war, taking Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip from Egypt, Golan Heights from Jordan, and full control of the West Bank. With the subsequent losses of the Arab Forces from the Six Day War, plans for retaliation were thought of by the governments of Syria and Egypt. Yom Kippur War Both Superpowers failed however; Egypt's military advanced through the Sinai Peninsula while Syria advanced through Jordan.
The U.N. Security Council passed Resolution 339, calling for ceasefire among the involved parties.
Results of the war were:
1. Saudi Arabia oil embargo against states that supported Israel, causing the 1973 Energy Crisis
2.Arab victories in the Yom Kippur War were able to heal the psychological wounds of its people; in a diplomatic sense, Arabs were able to see themselves as equal to that with the Israelis
3. Commencement of the Camp David Accords, resulting into the Israel-egypt Peace treaty; and indirectly, the assassination of Egypt's Anwar Sadat Through the Oslo Accords starting in 1993, the P.L.O. and Israel tried to permanently resolve the ongoing conflict within Palestine. Establishment of the Palestinian National Authority Under the agreements of the Oslo Accords, there are three designated areas defined with regards to jurisdiction and authority: Jurisdiction of the P.N.A. The United States, through Henry Kissinger, tried to sway Israel not to commit any preemptive military strike against Egypt and Syria, while at the same time, the US was also trying to convince the U.S.S.R. to help prevent Egypt from commencing the planned attack 18 19 10 8 8 10 It is through these accords which formed the Palestinian National Authority (P.N.A.) in 1994, under the agreements signed by Yasser Arafat, Yitzahk Rabin, and Bill Clinton. 21. Palestinian Basic Law: http://www.palestinianbasiclaw.org/basic-law/2002-basic-law
22. 2006 Lebanese War: http://www.meforum.org/1686/how-israel-bungled-the-second-lebanon-war
23. Resolution 1701 (2006): http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2006/sc8808.doc.htm
24. Hamas & Fatah: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/5016012.stm
25. Unity Government in Palestine (Huffington Post): http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/02/06/palestinian-hamas-fatah-deal_n_1257919.html Sources 2 8 10 20 Area A: P.N.A has exclusive control over security and civilian related issues within Palestinian urban areas
Area B: P.N.A. has control over civilian related issues within rural areas, while Israel remains to have authority over security related issues
Area C: Remainder of the territories will remain under Israeli control
(East Jerusalem excluded from the accords) 2 20 21 With Yasser Arafat dead, there was no mediator between Hamas and Fatah, thus causing tension within the P.N.A.
Palestinian legislative elections were first held on 25 January 2006, in which Hamas became victorious. Ismael Haniyeh was sworn in as Prime Minister on 29 March 2006.
Hamas refused to recognize Israel and act upon the agreements signed within the Oslo Accords.
Armed conflict started with the firing of Hamas militia men towards a Fatah rally on 15 December 2006, starting the Gaza Civil War.
Fatah forms a new government on 15 June 2007, the West Bank under its jurisdiction.
2011 Cairo agreement signed by both Mahmoud Abbas and Kahled Meshaal. Both parties agreed to form a unity government. Elections and P.N.A. Split Hezbollah were commencing guerilla attacks against Israeli forces within Northern Israel, Golan Heights, and Southern Lebanon. 2006 Lebanon War Israel initiated counter-attacks against Hezbollah troops, and created a naval blockade in Lebanon. Security Council passes Resolution 1701, calling for a ceasefire among parties involved. Israel holds Lebanon responsible for failing to demilitarize Hezbollah. 4 22 23 8 24 25 First Zionist Congress