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Media influences and effects

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Vivian Kowalski

on 25 September 2015

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Transcript of Media influences and effects

Indirect versus direct effects
Fear versus taken for granted
Stimulus - Respons
Media influences and effects
Media effect theories
Media effects theories
Reference list
Lizzy Vermesi
Vivian Kowalski

´´How the media talks about media influences and effects of the media ´´
Cultivation Theory
“…television plays a homogenizing role for otherwise heterogeneous populations. Influence occurs because of continued and lengthy exposure to television in general, not just exposure to individual programs or genres.”

The Hypodermic Model
Mass Society Theory
Agenda Setting
First speculations about media influence
Media has a direct and powerfull influence on the public

The media is 'injecting' their message to manipulate the audience
Source: Croteau, Hoynes, Milan 2012
Homogenization of population
No personal voice but part of the society
''a ‘power elite’ is able to manipulate the masses, despite the existence of apparently democratic structures ''
(C. Wright Mills 1956)
Media & Violence
Media & Women
Media & Economics
''Bad vibes from the screen: Media violence does influence aggressive behaviour.''

(The Indipendence, 1994)
''People who watch violent television more likely to be aggressive.''
(The Telegraph, 2012)
''Kinderen lopen risico als zij veel geweld zien op tv.''
(NRC, 2007)
General assumpsion:
Violence in the media results in increasing aggression and violence in society.
It is effecting others
Media effects or cultivation approach?
Media effects

''Veel kritiek na vrouwonvriendelijke reclame Suitsupply''
(NRC. next, 2010)
''Hip-hop portrayal of women protested''
(CNN, 2005)
General assumpsion:
Distorted image of women beauty and sex in the media.
Lowers the self esteem of women.
Media effects or cultivation approach?
Cultivation Theory
Media & Politics
General assumptions
Media Effects or Cultivation Approach?
Media Effects (Agenda Setting) in combination with Cultivation Approach.
General assumptions
Media effects or Cultivation Approach ?
Media Effects in combination with the Cultivation Approach.
The Minimal Effects
"Media messages acted to reinforce existing beliefs rather than to change opinion."

Bernard Cohen (1963, p. 13): “The news may not be successful in telling people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers what to think about.”
Young people on television
African-Americans on television
"Journalisten hebben bijgedragen aan negatieve tendens... ze overschreeuwen zich en verergeren zo de crisis." (NRC: Kleinnijenhuis, 2009)
We all live in a crisis.
(Croteau, Hoynes & Milan 2012, p. 232)
(Croteau, Hoynes & Milan 2012, p. 236)
Media Effects
Conservative ideology's

Consensus and agreement

Causality in stimulus - respons

David Hollanders (2009): De economische berichtgeving oefent een invloed uit op consumentenvertrouwen: hoe negatiever de berichtgeving, hoe lager het daarop volgende vertrouwen, gecontroleerd voor de daadwerkelijke stand van de economie.
Clear example of stimulus-response
Consensus in the media about violence
Fear of Pim Fortuyn or of the media content?
Mean-world syndrome
Pim Fortuyn as a threat to society
Impact on long term
Gives us a distored view of reality
impact especially on heavy viewers
Direct effect
Indirect Effect
Taken for granted
Group 1: You are Bert Habets (director RTL Group) and as a guest you are invited to defend your program Zon, Zuipen, Ziekenhuis, at Pauw & Witteman. What are your arguments?

Group 2: You are working at the AA (Anonieme Alcoholisten) and you are also a guest at Pauw & Witteman. In your opinion, the program Zon, Zuipen, Ziekenhuis causes harm. What are your arguments?
Two-step flow of influence (Lazarsfeld and collegues, 1948)
Arece, R. (2005, 4 march). Hip-hop portrayal of women protested. Geraadpleegd op 15-10-2013. http://edition.cnn.com/2005/SHOWBIZ/Music/03/03/hip.hop/

Croteau, D., Hoynes, W. & Milan, S. (2012). Media/Society. Industries, images and audiences (4th ed.). London: Sage

Hollanders, D. & Vliegenthart, R. (2009). The Influence of Negative Newspaper Coverage on Consumer Confidence: The Dutch Case. The Netherlands: CentER Discussion Paper Serie.

NRC, (2007, 5 juli). Kinderen lopen risico als zij veel geweld zien op tv. Geraadpleegd op 15-10-2013.

Oosterbaan, W. (2009) Journalisten hebben bijgedragen aan negatieve tendens. Geraadpleegd op 13 oktober 2013 van http://vorige.nrc.nl/nieuwsthema/kredietcrisis/article2105532.ece

Persaud, R. (1994, 5 april). Bad vibes from the screen: Media violence does influence aggressive behaviour.
Geraadpleegd op 16-10-2013.

The Telegraph (2012, 9 aug). People who watch violent television more likely to be aggressive. Geraadpleegd op 16-10-2013.

Vliegenthart, R. (2013). Hebben media schuld aan de economische crisis? Geraadpleegd op 13 oktober 2013 van http://stukroodvlees.nl/uncategorized/hebben-media-schuld-aan-de-economische-crisis/

Van den Berg, A. (2010, 7 dec). Is het nu juist man- of vrouwonvriendelijk? De reclamecampagne van Suitsupply roept verdeelde reacties op. Geraadpleegd op 17-10-2013.

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