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Biomes

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by

Nele Wulf

on 6 November 2013

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Transcript of Biomes

Tropical Rain Forest
Climatograph
year-round warm temperature
a lot of rain (at least 2 meters per year)
Vegetation and Animals
more than 30 million plants- and animals species
Animals: highly specialized
Plants: astonishing variety
Adaptations of the animals and plants
Plants: variety of adaptations even with short supply of nutrients and light (trap curious animals / growing on other plants / large aboveground roots / bright attractive flowers)
Animals: variety of plants and tropical rain forest support = a lot of animal species (monkeys = long limbs and a grasping, prehensile tail)
Location/map
Tropical rain forests are found in Central America, South America, Southeast Asia, West Africa, and other tropical regions.
Economic activities
cut and burn trees to obtain the new land
Environmental Threats
Tourism
Mining and drilling
Conversion to agricultural land
Climate change
Hunting
Forest fires
Tropical dry forest
Climatograph
year-round warm
rainfall is highly seasonal
Location/Map
widerpread in India, southern North America, Central America, South America, and southeast Asia
Vegetation and Animals
Organisms have adapted to seasonal fluctuations in precipitation and temperature
roots tend to be deep
Animals must cope with lack of water (must enter dormancy called estivation or migrate)
Adaptations of the animals and plants
Economic activities
deforestation for firewood
Environmental Threats
Human fires
loss of territory by unsustainable human development
pollution
animal hunting and capture
Savanna
Climatograph
Location/Map
Savannas are found across stretches of Africa, South America, Australia, India, and other dry, and tropical regions
Vegetation and Animals
An important tree specie is the Acacia
Other kinds of trees are Baobab, Aloe dichotoma and Moane
Animals: Herbivores (giraffe, elephant, zebra), Carnivores (puma, lion, cheetah), insects,
Adaptations of the animals and plants
deep roots
plants grow quickly
thick bark
some trees can store water
some trees develop bitter tastes / rough textures / thorns
elephants dig for water with ivory tusks
Economic activities
Changes in fire management
Grazing and browsing animals
Tree clearing
Exotic plant species
Climate change
Environmental Threats
Desert
Climatograph
temperatures vary widely from day to night
very dry
sunlight heats up
Location/map
Deserts are located in North and South Africa, Australia, Southwest Asia and South America
Vegetation and Animals
depending rainfall, deserts vary greatly in the amount of vegetation
not very much plant life
soils contain very little organic matter
Many desert animals are nocturnal
Adaptations of the animals and plants
Animals: Water from food / mammals tend to be small / large ears / birds are nomadic to find water and plant growth
Economic activities
Environmental Threats
global warming
high temperature = wildfires
grazing animals
nuclear waste
oil and gas production
Off-road vehicles
Climatograph
Temperate rain forest
year-round moderate temperature
heavy rainfall
Location/map
Temperate rain forests are found on the northwest cost of North America, South America and Asia
Vegetation and Animals
tall trees
evergreen trees (not lose their leaves)
coniferous trees are very often
a lot of moss
numerous amphibian species
squirrels, deer, elk, and birds have varied diets
Adaptations of the animals and plants
needlelike leaves in a thick, waxy substance ---> minimize moisture loss
Plants = tall ---> sunlight
Economic activities
use the land for farming, plantations, dams or mining
Rainforest timber is valued for its beauty and usefulness
Environmental Threats
fires
Temperate forest
Climatograph
precipitation is spread evenly throughout the year
quite hot in the summer, very cold in the winter
harsh winter freezes
Location/map
Europe, eastern Asia and eastern United States
Vegetation and Animals
broad-leafed deciduous trees (oaks, beeches, and maples)
wide leaves
large and tall trees
non seasonal vegetation
less undergrowth
Adaptation of animals and plants
Seasonal loss of leaves
the most birds migrate to warmer places in the winter
some animals hibernate (black bears, snakes)
other animals are building fat reserves or hiding food (deer, mice, eastern chipmunks)
camouflage to avoid predation
Economic activities
best quality wood
use wood for construction, firewood and art
cleared for farming and to build communities
loss of these forests in many parts of the world
ancient herbs and medicines
grazing
Environmental Threats
Climatograph
moderate seasonal precipitation
Location/map
cover most of the central and midwestern United States, South America, South Africa and Eurasia
Vegetation and Animals
Adaptation of the animals and plants
grasses grow from bases to tips
roots of grasses form thick mats
wind to disperse seeds
bisons migrate to south
some animals live underground (prairie dog)
Economic activities
Livestock farming (dairy farming and cattle ranching) and cereal farming (grow grass and fodder crops)
leaves and stems of grasses produce rich humus
Wheat-sheep farming
Environmental Threats
widespread loss of wildlife habitat because of farming
poor agricultural practices can ruin soil
Grazing livestock destroy grassland
global warming
Chaparral
Climatograph
mild, wet winters / hot, dry summers
Location/map
near oceans and around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe and Africa
along the coasts of California, Chile, southern Australia and southern Africa
Vegetation and Animals
soil is thin and not rich in nutrients
animals are all mainly grassland and desert types
Adaptations of the animals and plants
Plants:
must withstand periods of drought
shrubs (sagebrush), small trees (olive trees)
thick waxy leaves, hair on leaves
some succulent plants can hold water in tissues
thick bark / deep roots to resist fire
Economic activities
cork processing done faster and more efficiently
building homes
Environmental Threats
hunting
Boreal forest
Climatograph
long, cold winters
short, cool summers
seasonal variation in temperature and precipitation
Location/map
stretches in a broad band across much of Canada, Alaska, Russia, and Scandinavia
Vegetation and Animals
soils are nutrient-poor
species diversity is low
coniferous trees (black spruce)
mammals (moose, wolves, bears, lynx)
Adaptations of the animals and plants
Plants:
waxy needles avoid excess water loss
conifers can undergo photosynthesis
They can also have symbiotic relationships with fungi to make use of scarce nutrients
Economic activities
landowner ship
Industrial activity
sustainable forest management
Environmental Threats
fires
logging
mining
Hydro-electric power generation
Tundra
Climatograph
cold, dark winters
cool, bright, mild summers
freezing temperatures
permafrost
Location/map
very high latitudes along the northern edges of Alaska, Canada, Skandinavia, and Russia
Vegetation and Animals
nutrient-poor soils
limit plant growth
only low, scrubby vegetation
ground-hugging mosses and lichens
seed dispersal by wind
only a few animals (polar bear, musk oxen can survive year-round
Adaptations of the animals and plants
some plants have symbiotic relationships with bacteria to gain nutrients
bird species migrate long distances
caribou have thick coats with insulating air spaces and wide hooves
Economic activities
herding (sheep)
hunting
fishing
mining
Environmental Threats
b
pitcher plant
Plants: most trees are deciduous / important tree specie is the acacia
Animals: giraffes, scorpions, roadside hawks, lizards, snakes, honeybees, cuckoos, monkeys, frogs, ants
= less rain than tropical dry forest, but more rain than desert
Precipitation usually arrives during distinct rainy seasons
strong winds
Baobab
cattle grazing and mining
tourism
= driest biome on earth
Plants: thick, leathery leaves to reduce water loss / succulents store water in their tissues / sharp spines to discourage herbivores / green stems and trunks to perform photosynthesis / roots spread out or go deep into the ground
Mining
oil extraction
quarrying
exporting the natural resources
clearing of the rain forest
cutting of trees
acid rain
pollution
exotic organisms
Temperate grassland
plants die in the winter
Perennial grasses and perennial forbs
fauna is very low in diversity
dominant herbivores are bison and pronghorn
Rodent herbivores: squirrels and the prairie dog
Carnivores: coyote, badger
Animals:
some are nocturnal
burrowing
long lags and ears
jackrabbit
found in areas of every single continent
Plants:
Cactus
poison oak
scrub oak
shrubs
Animals:
Jackals
lizards
Bobcats
cougars
deer
building homes
pollution
Animals:
small extremities and thick insulation to avoid losing heat
some can change color (snowshoe hares, ermines)
insect-eating birds migrate from tropics to the boreal forest
global warning
air pollution
oil spills
buildings / roads
Biomes
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