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Human Embryology

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Jake Miller

on 3 June 2014

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Transcript of Human Embryology

Human Embryo
The zygote cell from fetilization is now multicellular and diploid. It is known as an embryo.
It is supported by the mother by an umbilical cord and the extra embryonic membranes as morphogenesis takes place.
Morula/Cleavage
Gastrula/Gastrulation
Ectoderm
Mesoderm
Endoderm
Blastula/Blastocyst
Neurula/Neurulation
Morphogenesis
Fetus
Works Cited
Credits
Human Embryology
By
Jake Miller
Asma Azam
Muqeet Ahmad
Brian Galfond
Sarah Bender
Aarti Hinduja
and Yogith Tupakula
Timeline of
Human Baby

Morula/Cleavage
Conception
Blastula/Blastocyst
Gastrula/Gastrulation
Neurula/Neurulation
Morphogenesis
Embryo
Fetus
Conception
Sperm meets the egg and fertilizes it.
Zygote is formed, and Metiosis occurs.
Cleavage of cells begins to divide zygote further.
Allantois
Develops from Hypoblasts/Extraembryonic Mesoderm
Surrounds the yolk
Modifies yolk lipids into lipoproteins
Provides nourishment required for Embryonic growth
Amnion
Develops from Epiblasts/Extraembryonic Mesoderm
Surrounds Embyro in fluid filled sac which protects the Embryo from:
- Shock Absorption
- Temperature Fluctuations
- Prevents Extreme Dryness
Chorion
Develops from Trophoblasts/Extramembryonic Mesoderm
Surrounds Embryo
Outermost Membrane
Chorion + Allantois = gas and nutrient exchange
Yolk Sac
Develops from Embryonic Hindgut
Out pocket of hindgut
Functions as waste removal (removes embryonic wastes produced by embyro)
Known as the "Primitive Bladder"
Day 1
Day 1- Day 4
Day 5- Day 9
Day 18- Day 27
Week 4- Week 8
Week 4-Week 8
Week 8-Birth
Day 10- Day 17
Brian- Embryo, Extra Embryonic Membranes
Yogith- Fetus, Extra Embryonic Membranes
Muqeet- Blastula, Extra Embryonic Membranes, Organization of the Prezi, Citations
Asma- Morphogenesis, Germ Layers
Sarah- Neurula, Germ Layers
Aarti- Morula, Germ Layers
Jake- Gastrula, Organization of Prezi
Carnegie - Stage 1-23. (n.d.). Carnegie - Stage 1-23. Retrieved June 2, 2014, from http://www.embryology.ch/carnegie/carnegieen.html?number=1
Chapter 14. Gastrulation and Neurulation. (n.d.). Chapter 14. Gastrulation and Neurulation. Retrieved June 2, 2014, from http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol114/Chap14/Chapter_14.html
Extraembryonic Membranes in Human Development. (n.d.). Figure . Retrieved June 2, 2014, from http://krupp.wcc.hawaii.edu/BIOL101/present/lcture15/img036.jpg
Gastrulation: Formation of the Primary Germ Layers. (n.d.). Human Development. Retrieved June 2, 2014, from http://www.utm.utoronto.ca/~w3bio380/pdf/OLD-PDF/2010%20Summer/Gastrulation.pdf
Gilbert, S. (n.d.). Figure 12.6. Sinauer Associates. Retrieved June 2, 2014, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10080/figure/A2879/?report=objectonly
Gilbert, S. (n.d.). Developmental Biology. Formation of the Neural Tube. Retrieved June 2, 2014, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10080/


While the oocyte is moving through the fallopian tube, cleavage begins to take place while remaining the same volume
When it reaches 16-32 cells it is referred to as a morula and the hollow inner space known as the blastocyst cavity, begins filling with liquid.
During morulation the blastomeres also seperate the inner cells(embryoblast) and outer cells(trophoblast) leading to the partiton of the cells

The blastocyst forms five days after conception and is made up of an inner cell mass (ICM) and Blastocoel on the inside, and an outer epithelial layer with trophoblasts on the outside
The ICM will lead to the three germ layers while the trophoblasts will become the extra embryonic membranes
Formation of the two layer, Epiblast and Hypoblast
Cells are pluripotent
Attaches to endouterine wall on 6th day
Time of Major Cell Reorganization
Cells begin to differentiate into different organs and germ layers
Cell migration is done primarily through cells being seperated by the primitave node and primitave streak seperating the embryo into 3 distinct germ layers
At 18 days neurogenesis begins and the neural plate forms.
At 3 weeks the neural tube is formed which later foms into the spinal cord and the brain.
The forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain are formed which are the three main sections of the brain ( the brain is the first organ to form)
By 27 days the anterior and posterior neuropores close, covering the neural tube
Organs have formed and continue to develop from 8 weeks until delivery
Limbs and organs begin to function while the fetus is being supported by the mother until birth
Morphogenesis is the stage where organs and body parts begin to fully develop
It takes place while the baby is still an embryo and is in the process of becoming a fetus
Made up of cells that entered the primitave streak first.
Made up of cells that entered the primitave streak later on
Made up of cells that remained on the surface of the embryo and did not enter the primitave streak
Human Reproduction and Development. (2004, March 3). Human Reproduction. Retrieved June 2, 2014, from http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch39repronotes.htm
Lee, T., Bhushan, V., Sochad, M., M.D., Petersen, M., & Micevic, G. (2013). First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2014 (24th ed.). McGraw Hill Medical.
Outline. (n.d.). Evolution. Retrieved June 2, 2014, from http://www.biology.ufl.edu/courses/zoo3603/2009fall/kohno/Lecture_PDF_files/Evolution%20of%20ee%20membranes.pdf
Prenatal Form and Function – The Making of an Earth Suit. (n.d.). 2 to 3 Weeks. Retrieved June 2, 2014, from https://www.ehd.org/dev_article_unit3.php#neuralplate
Placenta and Fetal Membranes. (n.d.). Embryology - Cell 413/613. Retrieved June 2, 2014, from http://www.tulane.edu/~embryo/Lectures/exam%202/08%20Placenta%20and%20Fetal%20Membranes%20total.pdf
Sunderland, M. E. (2008, May 9). Morphogensis. Retrieved May 30, 2014, from The Embryo Project Encyclopedia website: http://embryo.asu.edu/pages/morphogenesis
The Embryo Project Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Morphogenesis. Retrieved June 2, 2014, from http://embryo.asu.edu/pages/morphogenesis
The key embryonic processes that contribute to morphogenesis are:. (n.d.). morphogenesis. Retrieved June 2, 2014, from http://www.bionalogy.com/morphogenesis.htm
Works Cited Cont.
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