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Development Across the Lifespan

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Clare Gruszka

on 24 October 2012

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Transcript of Development Across the Lifespan

Development Across the Lifespan Adolescence Adulthood Physical Development Cognitive Development Psychosocial Development Psychosocial Development Cognitive Development Moral Development Physical Development Physical Development Psychosocial Development Cognitive Development Infancy and Childhood Development Puberty is a period of about 4 years during which the sexual organs and systems fully mature and during which secondary sex characteristics such as body hair, breasts, menstruation, deepening voices, and the growth spurt occur Adolescents, especially those who receive formal high school education, may move into Piaget's final stage of formal operations, in which abstract thinking becomes possible
This cognitive advance is feasible primarily due to the final development of the frontal lobes of the brain, the part of the brain that is responsible for organizing, understanding, and decision-making
Adolescents have increased cognitive capacity and mental tools, but don't necessarily know how to use those tools effectively Kohlberg proposed three levels of moral development: In Erikson's identity vs. role confusion crisis, the job of the adolescent is to achieve a consistent sense of self from among all the roles, values, and future open to him or her The 20s are the peak of physical health
In the 30s, the signs of aging become more visible, and in the 40s visual problems may occur, weight may increase, strength may decrease, and height begins to decrease
Women experience a physical decline in the reproductive system called the climacteric, ending at about age 50 with menopause, when a woman's estrogen levels are at zero and her reproductive capabilities are at an end
Men go through andropause, a less dramatic change in testosterone and other male hormones, beginning in the 40s
Many health problems such as high blood pressure, skin cancers, and arthritis begin in middle age, with the most common causes of death in middle age being heart disease, cancer, and stroke Reaction times slow down, but intelligence and memory remain relatively stable Erikson's crisis of young adulthood is intimacy vs. isolation, in which the young adult must establish an intimate relationship, usually with a mate Research Designs Prenatal Development The Basic Building Blocks of Development Human Development: The scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age, from conception to death Issues in Studying Human Development The problem in developmental research is that the age of the people in the study should always be an independent variable, but people cannot be randomly assigned to different age groups Thus, three special methods are used in developmental research: Longitudinal Design Cross-Sectional Design Cross-Sequential Design 1. 2. 3. One group of people is followed and assessed at different times as the group ages For example, studying the impact of friendships throughout the lifespan by surveying the same group of participants at age 20, age 40, and age 60 Advantage: looking at real age-related changes as those changes occur in the same individuals Disadvantages: lengthy amount of time, money, and effort involved in following participants over the years, as well as the loss of participants when they move away, lose interest, or die Several different age groups are studied at one time For example, studying the differences in the impact of friendships through surveying different groups of 20-year-old, 40-year-old, and 60-year old participants at the same period in time Advantages: quick, relatively inexpensive, and easier to accomplish than longitudinal design Disadvantage: study does not compare an individual to that same individual as he or she ages; instead, individuals of different ages are being compared to one another Combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional designs For example, studying the impact of friendships throughout the lifespan and the differences in friendship due to age by surveying groups of 20-year-old participants and 40-year-old participants at one time period and surveying those same groups when participants are 25 years old and 45 years old Nature vs. Nurture Nature: refers to heredity, the influence of inherited characteristics on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions Nurture: refers to the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, etc. and includes parenting styles, physical surroundings, economic factors, and anything that can have an influence on development that does not come from within the person Most developmental psychologists agree that development is a product of the interaction between nature and nurture Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA Genetics: the science of heredity Understanding how genes transmit human characteristics and traits involves defining a few basic terms... DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): a special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism Gene: section of DNA containing a certain sequences of amines (organic structures that contain the genetic codes for building the proteins that make up organic life--hair coloring, muscle, and skin) Genes are located on rod-shaped structures called chromosomes, which are found in the nucleus of a cell Humans have a total of 46 chromosomes in each cell of their bodies; 23 of these chromosomes come from the mother's egg and the other 23 from the father's sperm Dominant and Recessive Genes The 46 chromosomes can be arranged in pairs, with one member of each pair coming from the mother and the other member from the father Dominant genes control the expression of a trait, whereas recessive gene traits are only expressed when paired with another recessive gene for the same trait Almost all traits are the result of combinations of genes working together in a process called polygenic inheritance Some genes are so equally dominant or equally recessive that they combine their traits in the organism, i.e., strawberry-blonde hair Genetic and Chromosome Problems Several genetic disorders are carried by recessive genes Diseases carried by recessive genes are inherited when a child inherits two recessive genes, one from each parent (i.e., cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disorder, and phenylketonuria (PKU)) Missing or extra chromosomes can cause mild to severe problems in development Down Syndrome: disorder in which there is an extra chromosome in what would normally be the 21st pair Klinefelter's Syndrome: when the 23rd set of sex chromosomes is XXY, with the extra X producing a male with reduced masculine characteristics, enlarged breasts, obesity, and excessive height Turner's Syndrome: when 23rd pair is missing an X, so that the result is a lone X chromosome, producing females who tend to be short, infertile, and sexually underdeveloped The fertilized egg cell is called a zygote and divides into many cells, eventually forming the baby Monozygotic (identical) twins: formed when the zygote splits into two separate masses of cells, each of which will develop into a baby identical to the other Dizygotic (fraternal) twins: formed when the mother's body releases multiple eggs and at least two are fertilized, or when another ovulation occurs even though the mother has already become pregnant When the two masses do not fully separate, conjoined twins occur The Germinal Period The first 2 weeks of pregnancy in which the dividing mass of cells (blastocyst) moves down the fallopian tubes into the uterus
The placenta begins to form, which is a specialized organ that provides nourishment and filters away the developing baby's waste products
The umbilical cord begins to develop, connecting the organism to the placenta
The cells being to differentiate, or develop into specialized cells, in preparation for becoming various kinds of cells that make up the human body (skin cells, heart cells, etc.) The Embryonic Period Once firmly attached to the uterus, the developing organism is called an embryo
This period begins at 2 weeks after conception and ends at 8 weeks
The vital organs and structures of the baby form during this period, making it a critical one for teratogens to adversely affect the development of developing organs and structures Critical Periods Any substance such as a drug, chemical, virus, or other factor that can cause a birth defect is called a teratogen
As soon as the embryo begins to receive nourishment from the mother through the placenta, it becomes vulnerable to hazards such as diseases of the mother, drugs, and other toxins that can pass from the mother through the placenta to the developing infant
It is during the embryonic period that we more clearly see critical periods, times during which environmental influences can have an impact The Fetal Period From the beginning of the 9th week until the birth of the baby
Tremendous growth occurs, length and weight increase, and organs continue to become fully functional Four critical areas of adjustment for the newborn are respiration, digestion, circulation, and temperature regulation Infants are born with reflexes that help the infant survive until more complex learning is possible These reflexes include: Sucking Rooting Moro (startle) Grasping Stepping Sensory Development The senses, except for vision, are fairly well developed at birth Vision is blurry and lacking in full color perception until about 6 months of age Infants prefer to look at complex patterns rather than simple ones, three dimensions rather than two, and the most preferred visual stimulus is the human face The Visual Cliff: Gibson and Walk found that 81% of infants refused to crawl across an apparent "cliff," indicating that those infants were capable of seeing the world in three dimensions Gross and fine motor skills develop at a fast pace during infancy and early childhood There are six motor milestones: Raising head and chest (2 to 4 months) Rolling over (2 to 5 months) Sitting up with support (4 to 6 months) Sitting up without support (6 to 7 months) Walking (8 to 18 months) The brain triples its weight in the first 2 years, reaching about 75% of its adult weight By age 5, the brain is at 90% of its adult weight This increase makes possible a tremendous amount of major advances in cognitive development, including the development of thinking, problem solving, and memory Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Piaget believed that children form mental concepts, or schemes, as they experience new situations and events
Believed that children first try to understand new things in terms of schemes they already possess, a process called assimilation (i.e., child might see an orange and say "apple" because both object are round)
The process of altering of adjusting old schemes to fit new information and experiences is accommodation (i.e., when child is corrected, might alter scheme for apple to include "round" and "red") Stages of Cognitive Development: Sensorimotor Stage Concerns infants birth to 2 years old Infants use their senses and motor abilities to learn about the world around them Object permanence develops, or the knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight The understanding that concepts and mental images represent objects, people, and events also develops Preoperational Stage Concerns children ages 2 to 7 Time of developing language and concepts Pretending and make-believe play become possible because children can mentally represent and refer to objects Children believe that anything that moves is alive, a quality called animism Children tend to be egocentric in thinking, which refers to the inability to see the world through anyone else's eyes but one's own Children also tend to focus on one feature of some object rather than taking all features into consideration, called centration Centration is one of the reasons that children in this stage often fail to understand that changing the way something looks does not change its substance The ability to understand that altering the appearance of something does not change its amount, its volume, or its mass is called conservation Preoperational children fail at conservation not only because they centrate, but also because that are unable to "mentally reverse" actions This feature of preoperational thinking is called irreversibility Concrete Operations Stage Concerns children ages 7 to 12
Logical thought becomes possible
Children become capable of conservation and reversible thinking http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/assimilation-and-accommodation.html Assimilation and Accommodation Video: Major limitation of this stage is the inability to deal effectively with abstract concepts, those that do not have some physical, concrete, touchable reality Concrete concepts, which are the kind of concepts understood by children of this age, are about objects, written rules, and real things Formal Operations Age 12 to adulthood
Abstract concepts are understood and hypothetical thinking develops
Piaget did not believe that everyone would necessarily reach formal operations, and studies show that only about half of all adults in the United States reach formal operations 1. 2. 3. 4. Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development Psychologist Lev Vygotsky emphasized that other people, acting as teachers and mentors, were a crucial part of the cognitive development of the child
Vygotsky believed that children learn best when being helped by a more highly skilled peer or adult in a process called scaffolding
In scaffolding, the more highly skilled person gives the learner more help at the beginning of the learning process and then begins to withdraw help as the learners' skills improve
The zone of proximal development is the difference between what a child can do alone versus what a child can do with the help of a teacher Stages of Language Development Newer theories of language development are focusing on environmental influences on language such as child-directed speech (the way adults and older children talk to infants and very young children with higher pitched, repetitious, sing-song speech patterns)
Because of this speech pattern, infants and toddlers attend more closely to this kind of speech, which creates a learning opportunity in the dialogue between caregiver and infant
Infants also seem to understand far more than they can produce, a phenomenon known as the receptive-productive lag The stages of language development are cooing, babbling, one-word speech (holophrases), telegraphic speech, and whole sentences Temperament The behavioral and emotional characteristics that are fairly well established at birth Easy: infants are regular in their schedules of waking, sleeping, and eating and are adaptable to change; are happy babies and easily soothed when distressed Difficult: infants tend to be irregular in their schedules and are very unhappy about change of any kind; are loud, active, and tend to be crabby rather than happy Slow to warm up: associated with infants who are less grumpy, quieter, and more regular than difficult children, but who are slow to adapt to change; if change is introduced gradually, these babies will "warm up" to new people and new situations Longitudinal research strongly suggests that these temperamental styles last well into adulthood, although they are somewhat influenced by the environment in which the infant is raised Attachment The emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver Ainsworth and colleagues identified four attachment styles through the experimental design of the "Strange Situation" Secure: willing to get down from mother's lap soon after entering the room with mothers, explored happily, looking back at mothers and returning to them every now and then ("touching base"). When the stranger came in, infants were wary but calm as long as mother was nearby. When mother left, infants got upset and when mother returned, infants approached her, were easily soothed, and glad to have her back Avoidant: although somewhat willing to explore, did not "touch base." Did not look at stranger or mother, and reacted very little to her absence or return, seeming to have no interest or concern Ambivalent: clinging and unwilling to explore, very upset by stranger regardless of mother's presence, protested mightily when mother left, and were hard to soothe. When mother returned, these babies would demand to be picked up, but at same time pushed mother away or kicked her in mixed reaction to her return Disorganized-disoriented: in subsequent studies, other researchers found that some babies seemed unable to decide just how they should react to the mother's return. These infants would approach her, but with eyes turned away, as if afraid to make eye contact. In general, these infants seemed fearful and showed a dazed and depressed look on faces Mothers of each of the four types of infants also behaved differently from one another
Mothers of secure infants were loving, warm, sensitive to their infant's needs, and responsive to the infant's attempts at communication
Mothers of avoidant babies were unresponsive, insensitive, and coldly rejecting
Mothers of ambivalent babies tried to be responsive, but were inconsistent and insensitive to the baby's actions
Mothers of disorganized-disoriented babies were found to be abusive or neglectful in interactions with infants
The temperament of the infant may play an important part in determining the reactions of the mothers Even adult relationships can be seen as influenced by the attachment style of the adult: those who are avoidant tend to have numerous shallow and brief relationships with different partners, whereas those who are ambivalent tend to have repeated break-ups and make-ups with the same person Harlow and Contact Comfort Harlow's classic research with infant rhesus monkeys demonstrated the importance of contact comfort in the attachment process, contradicting the earlier view that attachment was merely a function of associating the mother with the delivery of food Erikson's Stages of Psychsocial Development Erikson believed that development occurred in a series of eight stages, with the first four of these stages occurring in infancy and childhood
Each of Erikson's stages is an emotional crisis, or kind of turning point in personality, and the crisis in each stage must be successfully met for normal, healthy psychological development Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 1 year): babies learn to trust or mistrust others based on whether or not their needs--such as food and comfort--are met; if babies' needs are met, they learn to trust people and expect life to be pleasant, if not met, they learn not to trust Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1 to 3 years): toddlers realize that they can direct their own behavior; if toddlers are successful in directing own behavior, they learn to be independent, if attempts at being independent are blocked, they learn self-doubt and shame for being unsuccessful Initiative vs. Guilt (3 to 5 years): preschoolers are challenged to control own behavior, such as controlling exuberance when they are in a restaurant; if preschoolers succeed in taking responsibility, they feel capable and develop initiative, if they fail in taking responsibility, they feel irresponsible, anxious, and guilty Industry vs. Inferiority (5 to 12 years): school-aged children are faced with learning new social and academic skills. Social comparison is a primary source of information. When succeed at learning new skills, they develop a sense of industry, a feeling of competence, and self-esteem arising from work and effort, if fail to develop new abilities, they feel incompetent, inadequate, and inferior Period of life from about age 13 to the early 20s during which physical development reaches completion Theories of Physical and Psychological Aging Stages of Death and Dying 1. 2. 3. 4. Adolescents tend to engage in two kinds of egocentric thinking: Personal fable: adolescents spend so much time thinking about their own thoughts and feelings that they become convinced that they are special, one of a kind, and that no one else has every had those thoughts and feelings before them; they believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm Imaginary audience: adolescents become convinced that everyone is looking at them and that they are always the center of everyone else's world, just as they are the center of their own Preconventional morality (typically very young children): consequences determine morality; behavior that is rewarded is right, that which is punished is wrong Conventional morality (older children, adolescents, and most adults): conformity to social norms is right, nonconformity is wrong Postconventional morality (about 20% of adult population): moral principles determined by the person are used to determine right and wrong and may disagree with societal norms Gilligan suggested that Kohlberg's ideas applied more to males and proposed that men and women have different perspectives on morality: men tend to judge actions that lead to a fair or just end as moral, whereas women tend to judge actions that are nonviolent and hurt the fewest people as moral Adolescents who succeed in defining who they are and finding a role for themselves develop a strong sense of identity, whereas those who fail to define an identity become confused and withdraw or want to inconspicuously blend in with the crowd Begins in the early 20s and ends with death in old age People who exercise their mental abilities have been found to be far less likely to develop memory problems or even more serious senile dementias, such as Alzheimer's in old age Intimacy: an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care (an ability developed during the earlier stages such as trust vs. mistrust), while still maintaining one's sense of self Young adults who have difficulty trusting others and who are unsure of their own identities may find isolation instead of intimacy in the form of loneliness, shallow relationships with others, and a fear of real intimacy The crisis of middle adulthood is generativity vs. stagnation, in which the task of the middle-aged adult is to help the next generation through its crises, either by parenting, mentoring, or a career that leaves some legacy to the next generation Those who are unable to focus outward and are still dealing with issues of intimacy, or even identity, are said to be stagnated Erikson's final crisis is integrity vs. despair, in which an older adult must come to terms with mortality If people can look back and feel that their lives were relatively full and are able to come to terms with regrets and losses, then a feeling of ego integrity or wholeness results If people have regrets and lots of unfinished business, they feel despair, a sense of deep regret over things that will never be accomplished because time has run out Parenting Styles Baumrind proposed four parenting styles: Authoritarian: this type of parent is stern, rigid, demanding perfection, controlling, uncompromising, and has a tendency to use physical punishment; children raised in this way are often insecure, timid, withdrawn, and resentful Authoritative: parents combine warmth and affection with firm limits on a child's behavior; limits are set that are clear and understandable, and when a child crosses the limits, parents allow an explanation and then agree upon the right way to handle the situation Permissive indulgent: parents are so involved that children are allowed to behave without set limits Permissive neglectful: parents are uninvolved with child or child's behavior, ignoring them and allowing them to do whatever they want, until it interferes with what the parent wants Children from both kinds of permissive parenting tend to be selfish, immature, dependent, lacking in social skills, and unpopular with peers The cellular-clock theory is based on the idea that cells only have so many times that they can reproduce; once that limit is reached, damaged cells begin to accumulate The wear-and-tear theory of physical aging states that as time goes by, repeated use and abuse of the body's tissues cause it to be unable to repair all the damage The free-radical theory states that oxygen molecules with an unstable electron move around the cell, damaging cell structures as they go Activity theory: proposes that an elderly person adjusts more positively to aging when remaining active in some way Fives stages of death and dying: Denial: people refuse to believe that the diagnosis of death is real Anger: anger at death itself and the feelings of helplessness to change things Bargaining: the dying person tries to make a deal with doctors or even with God Depression: sadness from losses already experienced and those yet to come Acceptance: when the person has accepted the inevitable and quietly awaits death The danger in holding too strictly to a stage theory is that people may feel there is a "right" way to face death and a "wrong" way, when in fact each person's dying process is unique Parenting Styles Video: http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/parenting-styles.html Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development Video: http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/kohlbergs-stages-of-moral-development.html
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