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Introduction to Psychology-Mr. White
Transcript of Introduction to Psychology-Mr. White
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
So where do we start?
We start with what we can see right in front of us...
4 goals when looking at behavior
Look at what happens and record it
What is the reason for the behavior?
Given a specific set of circumstances, can we consistently and correctly guess what will cause a certain behavior to occur
Especially in the area of abnormal behavior, psychologists attempt to figure out how to change behavior
Behavioralism founded by John B. Watson
Focuses on observable behavior
-The great majority of behavior is learned through rewards and punishments
-Focuses on the brain, nervous system, hormones, genetics, etc.
-Behavior is a result of physiological and neurological processes
-Focuses on our thoughts and perceptions about ourselves and the world
-How we think about things influences our behaviors
-Focuses on the human potential for growth
-Our behavior is a result of our natural desire to grow and improve
-Focuses on the unconscious, childhood development, and sexuality
-Unconscious desires and early childhood trauma shape our behavior
Include the famious Psychologist Carl Jung
-Focuses on characteristics of people in different societies, cultures, and ethnicities
-Our behaviors are all based on what we learn from our society, culture, and ethnicity
Plato suggests that the brain is the mechanism of mental processes
Wilhelm Wundt develops first psychology laboratory to identify the two questions and be specific
What is the structure of the mind-how do the parts work
Must take a moment to be introspective to separate the two
William James (founder)
Why-the function of behavior
Drew inspiration from Charles Darwin's theory of evolution
Fun facts: James taught the first American psychology class ever and wrote the first psychology textbook in the United States
How Humans adapt to their environment
Observation of humans-Experience
What is the purpose of behavior-leads to success leads to habits leads to success
The Why purpose of behavior
Measure sensation & Conditioned Responses-What you do matters
What are the basic pieces/elements of the human mind? Objective Sensation (outside World) and Subjective Feelings (emotional responses and mental Images)
What is the function/purpose of the mind
Put it to the TEST!
ANALYZE the DATA
Come to a CONCLUSION
So how do we do that?
Alfred Kinsey and the Kinsey reports
An extensive and indepth look at a single individual
Observing an individual or group in their natural habitat, typically with as little interference as possible
a.k.a. the "fly on the wall" technique
Follows a (usually large) group of people over a long period of time
The British Series-7up Longitudinal Survey
Tests groups of people from different groups (usually ages)
Ask a series of questions to a number of people (depends on the type of survey)
Test the subjects in a controlled environment, where you can manipulate the situation and observe the results
The Kinsey Scale
A question framed as a scientifically testable statement
All other research methods merely collect data, whereas experiments essentially create data
Determine the Variables
The variable being directly manipulated by the experimenter
The variable that changes as a result of the change in independent variable
What do the subjects have to do in the experiment?
Usually there are two groups within the experiment as well
subjected to the independent variable
These people are
subjected to the independent variable
ANALYZE the DATA
Come to a CONCLUSION
Note: A good hypothesis will contain both the independent and dependent variables
Most important things to know in experimental design:
Independent and dependent variables
Participant welfare outweighs potential gain
Do no harm
Be open about your intentions
You should always be allowed to...Quit
no matter what knowledge may be gained you have to put the subjects first.
If harm is unwittingly done, fix it.
You should tell the subject everything you can about the experiment unless this knowledge will interfere with their actions
Whatever is learned about any of the subjects should be kept confidential. This is usually done by changing names in any publications of the study.
if the subject expresses discomfort, or simply wants to stop, they should be allowed to, even at the cost of a good trial through the study.
The Stanford Prison Experiment
What's unethical about the study Watson did on Little Albert?
What's unethical about the Stanford Prison experiment?
Measures of Central Tendency
Mean: the average
the middle score
: the most frequent number
Sum of all values in a data set
total number of values in the data set
1, 9, 11, 14, 18, 21, 29, 38, 40
3, 4, 26, 40, 45, 49, 51, 52, 57, 64
If the data set has an
number of values, find the average of the middle two
"Correlation does not equal causation"
# hours spent studying
# of hours spent watching TV
Does ice cream make you kill people?!?!
There's a third variable involved...
A causes/effects B
B causes/effects A
C causes/effects A
the summer heat
A method of comparing two sets of data
Both sets increase together
As one set increases, the other decreases
No clear relationship
Single Blind Experiments
Sow how do we avoid these?
A placebo is something that looks like a real drug/treatment, but in fact does nothing at all.
The placebo effect takes place when a person unknowingly gets a placebo, which does nothing, but their belief in the treatment actually makes them feel better
Situation in which a person's expectations influence that person's own behavior, and so influence the behavior of others
Double Blind Experiments
experiment where the subject does not know the purpose or details of the study, but the experimenter does
experiment where neither the subject nor the experimenter knows the purpose or details of the experiment. The only one who knows is the experiment organizer.
Not knowing what the experimenter is looking at or for removes any potential biases from the experiment.
: Know thyself
Examine your own thoughts and
remind us of things in the past.
Idea of Mom can bring warm feelings
even when we are older.
Freud: the Father of Psychology
Sigmund Freud: 1856-1939-Freud is the founder of
Psychoanalysis-psychodynamics. Today a part of the
common culture-words such as "Ego"-"Analysis"-
"the Meaning of Dreams", Unconsciousness.
Freud believed many problems
had a sexual orientation or was
linked to aggression.
How do we learn-
How does our brain keep information-Memory
Do we all learn the same way
How does experience change behavior?
Multiple theories of learning
Behavior: is any action people can observe
Cognitive Processes: Mental processes-how one thinks, dreams and your memories (how does remembering work?)
The Goal of Psychology: Identify and explain the
behavior of humans.
Three Levels of Research are:
Micro, Molecular and Molar:
-study Brain Waves
- study reason why a person might be fearful
-why are people violent