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Anuj Manek

on 20 November 2012

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Transcript of Minerals

You will learn:
What minerals are
Different type of minerals( who classified them)
What they are composed of.
How they are made
Also what are their properties What you will learn in this prezi These minerals are unique because they are natural and they are only made out of a single element.
The minerals can be divided into 3 categories:
Non-metals Native Elements Sulfates are compounds which are a combination of sulfur with 1 or more metals.
These minerals are special because most of the types are rare. They are soft and pale crystal with a transparent to translucent look. Sulfates When sulfur blends with other minerals, metal included, they will make many types of minerals called sulfides. Sulfides Carbonate minerals from when a carbonate (CO3) combines with metals or metalloids.
characteristics include :they are very soft and acid soluble. Carbonates This is the largest and most diverse type of mineral from the other 7 groups.
These are created when a metal combines with silicon and oxygen.
Silicates make up more than 90% of the weight of the Earth’s crust.
There are more than a 1000 but we will focus on 2 only. Silicates When a metal is blended with : fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astanine you will get a halite.
The halide minerals are water soluble so they will dissolve if they are place into a body of water
There are 2 types of halides: Halite and fluorite. Halides Minerals Overview By: Anuj Manek What are minerals? Any of a class of substances occurring in nature, usually comprising inorganic substances, as quartz or feldspar, of definite chemical composition and usually of definite crystal structure, but sometimes also including rocks formed by these substances as well as certain natural products of organic origin, as asphalt or coal. It is obtained by mining Sulfur This is a yellow mineral that can be formed in 2 places: fumaroles and high temperature volcanic springs Copper This is a red metal, that is turns green when it tarnishes.
It grows in dentritic crystals Gold Gold is a yellow metallic, rare metal that doesn't tarnish which is why its so special.
It is formed in hydrothermal veins and also in deposits in river beds Arsenic Arsenic is a grape looking metal, that is deadly in pure form.
This is the perfect metal for electric transistors and also wood preservatives Bismuth This is a metalloid that expands when it is solidified. This metal is formed in steaming volcanic veins.
This is a great mineral to use for soldering. Nickel This mineral is found when mined but it is found in a iron-nickel ore This is also called rock salt
The chemical formula of halite is NaCl which is very a common item to use on food, table salt.
They are clear and found in perfect crystals. There are 3 different type of crystals: Hopper, Orange and Blue. Halite Fluorite's chemical formula is CaF2
Because of all the different types of impurities there are fluorite's that come in a variety of colors, or it would be colorless and boring.
Another unique part about fluorite is that when it's under an ultra violet light the mineral starts to glow! Fluorite Formed when sides of the crystal grow faster than the center. Which gives it a very cool shape. Hopper halite Orange Halite This crystal is formed when there is traces of bacteria or it has been radiated Blue halite Classification Minerals are classified by there chemical properties and crystal structure There are 3 types of minerals in general: Metals, non- metals and metalloid. 8 classification groups In 1848 a scientist with the name of James Dana created a classification of minerals. He categorized them into 8 groups:
Native elements
Other Now let us look at the 8 mineral groups This type of halite is formed when the crystal has somewhat dissolved Felsic Mafic This word is a combination of “fel”= feldspar and “sic” = silicon
These are known to be more lighter in color and weight than all of the other types of silicates, the reason is because they are composed of less iron and magnesium
There are 3 types of felsic: Potassium Feldspar,
Mica and Quartz Potassium feldspar They are all composed of the same elements, but crystal their structure slightly differs.
They are all composed of the same elements Chemical formula: KAlSi3O8
There 3 types of K-feldspar The only to apart the different types of K-felspar is by using X-rays Orthoclase Granite is mostly composed of orthoclase and another with either quartz or mica.
The special part about this mineral is that it gets recycled when granite is erodes. Sanidine This is type of k-felspar is formed in different type of volcanic rocks and metamorphic rocks. marble is mostly composed of this. Microcline This is a well known mineral it is known and used by the chinese for millenniums. This is a green mineral which has been used for home items This video will demonstrate how gold is formed! Micas These minerals are found in all type of rocks
there are many characteristics of mica such as: Mica's form thin, colorless and brittle like
Some mica's are extremely clear, and brittle flake, resistant to weathering. Mica's are also heat resistance are still used in oil stoves and lamps. Muscovite This is a clear, tough heat resistant mineral that is used for stove window. this works really well where there is a lot of heat presence. Biotite They usually come in flakes but they can clump together to make a good solid piece.
The mineral is black and it easily breaks a part
It is not a hard mineral. The path of minerals lepidolite This is the rarest mica of all. This comes in flakes as well, which can be found igneous rocks that happen to be acidic.
This mineral can be used for ornaments because they come in few bright colors like pink, purple and also in gray because it has traces of lithium. Quartz This is a semi precious mineral that come in a large range of beautiful colors like pink, purple, because of the many types of impurities it consist of. This mineral is well known for its strength Ametheyst This is a purple mineral because it has ferric oxide in it. In greek the words direct translation is not drunk. :/
People who are born in the month of February are associated with this mineral Milky quarts Milky quartz is obviously named that because of its pure white color.
This mineral may have conclusions in it because of the gases that are formed and also there are some insects that creep from inside of the rock. When this mineral is present in another mineral it is referred to as the phantom Crystal quartz This is a pure form of quartz. it is a 6 sided crystal. It has few uses like it is used for crystal ball and watch becausee it is durable and strong. Rose quartz This beautiful mineral is used for jewelery and ornaments, its hard to believe that there are traces of iron and titanium that result in this pure pink color. Smokey Quartz Smokey quartz is a very unique gem seems black but it is actually dark brown. The reason for its color is that it has been radiated to be more specific by radium. Reminds me of This mineral is composed of Iron and magnesium and that is where it gets its name from magnesium (“ma”) and iron -ferric(“fic”).
They may form in magma, while 2 tetonic plates tear.
There are 2 types of Mafic minerals: Olivine and pyroxene. Whenever I hear movie I remember this movie--> Olivine This emerald looking mineral is made out of (Mg, Fe) 2SiO4
and it is found on beaches sand that is why sometimes the sand looks green Pyroxene Meaning: fire and stranger in greek
It looks like a tetraherdral crystals
They are created when a small amount of water is on rocks, can also be found in hot, steaming lava Others Besides the 2 large and more known mafic there are other mafic like anorthosite.
Aorthosite can be found on the moon and mercury(planet) this can be found on earth but it is underneath a lot of layers of rock. calcite Calcite is a very common mineral that covers about 4%(by weight) of the earth's surface and they are formed in hydrothermal veins. It is white in color Malachite Maclachite is a beautiful, semi precious, green mineral that is composed of copper carbonate hydroxide Rhodochrosite Rhodochrosite is a reddish/pinkish semi precious gem. That is formed in bubbles of volcanic veins.
This mineral is composed of manganese carbonate . Reminds me of meat Most of the sulfides happen to be brittle, dense and they are also known for their metal looking appearance. Sulfosalts When a sulfur binds with a metalloid the result of the reaction is sulfosalt Gelena Gelena is a mineral that is composed of lead and sulfur(PbS)
Gelena looks very tough by its shiny metal looking appearance. Since it contains lead it is a semi-conductor.
Gelena is a great material to use for protection against x-ray, or batteries. Cinnabar Cinnabar is bright, cool looking red mineral. Cinnabar is composed of mercury and sulfur(HgS) which makes it useable for mercury thermometer. Pyrite Pyrite is also referred to as fools gold, it looks a lot like gold with its shiny, metallic look. It is made out of iron and sulfur. Formation: These minerals are created when sulphates(SO4) react with the air or they can be deposits of hydrothermal fluids evaporation. Gypsum Gypsum is the most common sulfate mineral.
Gypsum is a sedimentary rock and a crystalline mineral. When a huge amount of salt is in a water basin, and the that water evaporates you are are left with gypsum. It is composed of Calcium, sulphate and water. (CaSO4.2H2O) Desert Rose The name given is very obvious, due to its extraordinary shape. This is formed when the water evaporates and then the pedals are formed when the mineral grows around the grains of sand. It is found in desert areas Daisy Gypsum These are also named after a flower, but this mineral is not shaped like daisies, but have tiny daisy like spots on them. The reason is that when a small amount of water is trapped on the rock it creates tiny rays of streaks because it expands. These"rays" give the look of tiny daisies on the rock. Satin Spar This is the only Gypsum that can be used for ornaments or jewelery. It has a very attractive look to it, because of the nice white and clear appearance it has. Epsomite Epsomite is also referred to as epsom salt. Discovering the mineral in big chunks is rare because it is water soluble. It forms close to hot springs and also in caves as a deposit on limestone. It is composed of: hydrated magnesium sulfate Oxides Majority of the minerals contain oxygen. But oxides mean when the mineral are composed of a mineral that has hydroxide or only oxygen Rutile Rutile is the main source where titanium comes from, so rutile is composed of titanium and oxygen. There are many uses for this mineral, thanks to rultile we can take out the titanium and use it for strong rockets, missiles, amour, shields and also white paint. Cassiterite This is made out of tin metal. and when copper and tin fuse they create bronze which has been an important metal for thousands of years. It is found in veins of igneous rock, as well as in sediment deposits. It is a great metal to use for stuff like armor and weapons Uraninite This mineral is composed of uranium and oxygen. due to it having uranium in it, the mineral is very radioactive. And the use is obvious that it will be used for nuclear energy. Magnetite This mineral is named magnetite because it is a natural magnet due to the mineral containing iron and oxygen. Ruby Ruby is a also a corundum which contains chromium, that is how it gets that bright red color. Pigeon blood is said to be the best shade of ruby. Sapphire Sapphire is a type of corundum which has traces of iron and titanium to give it the deep, blue color. Phosphate This mineral group is one of the smaller group, it falls under the secondary group. When primary minerals ore are destroyed and torn apart by natural factors secondary(phosphate)are made. These minerals are more colorful, soft and are easily breakable. Unique colors are created when they are fused with other minerals. Turquoise This has a very unique and interesting color to it. It is composed of hydrated copper aluminum phosphate. You can find turquoise in sky blue to bright teal. This mineral has been used by the egyptians for thousands of years. Apatite This mineral is one of the most unique mineral because it depends on which of fluorine (fluorapatite)
chlorine (chlorapatite), or the hydroxyl group (hydroxylapatite) it forms with that will result in the type of apatite. Most likely you will find it in yellow, but green, blue, reddish brown and purple are also available for this material. They can be transparent or translucent. Other There are some minerals that do not fall under the other 8 so they are classified under the other. Nitrate It is composed of NO3 Borate Borate is composed of BO3 or BO4.
example: ulexite (a.k.a. “TV Rock”)
It is called TV rock because it is clear like glass and fully transparent Iodates This mineral is composed of iodine and oxygen. Organic These minerals are made by living organisms. they may contain: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen examples: jet and pearls Physical Properties Cleavage When the mineral separates into 2 pieces and creates a smooth surface Perfect cleavage The mineral breaks perfectly into 2 pieces Fractures Mineral breaks in odd shapes, with odd lines of break. conhoidal Uneven fractures Crystal structure All minerals have their own crystal structure . There are 6 in total 1. Cubic -6 sideed

2. Tetragonal - similar to cubic crystals, but longer along one axis than the other.

3.Orthorhombic - like tetragonal crystals except not square in cross section (when viewing the crystal on end), forming rhombic prisms or dipyramids (two pyramids stuck together).

4.Hexagonal - six-sided prisms. When you look at the crystal on-end, the cross section is a hexagon and Trigonal - possess a single 3-fold axis of rotation.

5.Triclinic - usually not symmetrical from one side to the other, which can lead to some fairly strange shapes.

6.Monoclinic - like skewed tetragonal crystals, often forming prisms and double pyramids. specific gravity The relation to weight and water volume. Lust The state or quality of shining by reflecting light; glitter, sparkle, sheen, or gloss: the luster of satin. There are 5 types: Greasy,
Sub-metallic, metallic, silky and vitreous Color streak Idochromatic Minerals that are the same color that by the main chemical make up and appear the same color. allochromatic minerals. get color by their impurities Transperacny There are 3 types: transparent-light goes through clearly
translucent-some light go through, blurred.
opaque-light does not go through. Hardness It is the resistance to scratching on the mineral. it is scaled from 1-10, 10 being the toughest crystal habit It is the way the crystals grow.
there are 6 different types it grows:
1. acicular
6. massive Prezi by: Anuj Manek
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