Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning

No description

Candie A.

on 13 February 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning

Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML)
Three Assumptions
Dual Channels- There are two separate channels: Visual and verbal.

Limited Capacity- There is a limit to how much information people can process through their two channels.

Active Processing- A person has received meaningful learning when they can identify relevant information, organize it in a way they can understand and see a relationship between it and previous knowledge.
Challenges of Extraneous overload
Extraneous process exhausts cognitive capacity.
Occurs when lesson contains extraneous materials or is poorly designed.
Challenges of Essential overload
Essential processing exhausts cognitive capacity.
Occurs when lesson is difficult, lesson is presented at fast pace, and the learner is unfamiliar with the material.
Ways to Reduce Extraneous overload
People learn more deeply when these principles are observed:
Coherent Principle
: extraneous material is excluded rather than included.
Signaling Principle
: cues are added that highlight the main ideas and organization of the words.
Redundancy Principle
: animation and narration rather than animation, narration and on-screen text.
Spatial Contiguity Principle
: corresponding printed words and graphics are placed near rather than far from each other on the page or screen.
Temporal Contiguity Principle
: corresponding graphics and narration are presented simultaneously rather than successively.

Ways to Manage Essential Processing
People learn more deeply when these principles are observed:
Segmenting Principle
: narrated animation is presented in learner-paced segment than as a continuous unit.
Pre-training Principle
: people learn more deeply from a narrated animation when they have had training in the names and characteristics of the main concepts.
Modality Principle
: graphics and narration rather than graphics and on-screen text.

Five Cognitive Processes for Meaningful Learning
•The Diagram:

Three Demands of Multimedia Learning
Extraneous Processing- Words, sounds and graphics that are distracting. They result in extra cognitive processing that does not support the goals of the instruction.

Essential Processing- Affected by the complexity of the material. The learner tries to determine which parts of the material is important.

Generative Processing- The learner has to develop a deeper understanding of the material; by organizing and integrating information. Dependent on the learner's motivation.

Challenges of Generative Underutilization
Learner has cognitive capacity available but does not engage in sufficient generative processing.
Occurs when learner lacks motivation, does not exert effort.
Ways to Foster Generative Processing
People learn more deeply when these principles are observed:
Personalization Principle
: words are in conversational style rather than formal style.
Voice Principle
: the narration is spoken in a standard-accented human voice than a machine voice or foreign-accented human voice.

Critiques of CTML
Learners have a limited capacity for information processing when using their two channels: ears and eyes.
Selects words
Selects images
Organizes words
Organizes images

Integrates new material with prior knowledge
De Jong (2010) has called into question whether there is truly a distinction between essential and generative cognitive load because both are defined in terms of relatively similar learning processes.
Mayer (2009) includes boundary conditions that suggest that the instructional principles in CTML are not universal, absolute rules. Some (incl. De Jong) have criticized the existence of boundary conditions in CTML as an indicator that the theory has inconsistencies.

Group Members: Virginia Wong (Wong, Kwai Chau), and Candace Armour
Sorden, Stephen D. (2012) The Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. In B.J. Irby, G. Brown & R. Lara-Alecio (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Theories (pp. 7, 9). Charlotte: Information Age Publishing Inc. Retrieved from http://sorden.com/portfolio/sorden_draft_multimedia2012.pdf
Clark, Ruth C., & Mayer, Richard E. (2011). How Do People Learn From e-Courses. In Rebecca Taff & Michael Zelenko (Eds.), e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning (pp. 29-47). San Francisco, CA 94103-1741: Preiffer.
Allrich, Rod (February 12, 2014). Meaningful Learning. Retrieved from http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~rallrich/learn/mean.html
Full transcript