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Endeavoring to Understand Long Term English Learners

Endeavoring to Understand Long Term English Learners
by

Jenna Canillas

on 16 July 2017

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Transcript of Endeavoring to Understand Long Term English Learners

Long Term English Learners
Endeavoring to Understand
by Jenna Canillas
Background Information
Long Term English Learners
3 Types of EL
Recent immigrants - Literate in first language or with little to no literacy skills or school experiences
The Achievement Gap
A subgroup of a subgroup
Many EL remain in English language development programs for many years

They have been referred to as “ESL Lifers,” “The 1.5 generation,” “Forever LEP,” and “The 6 Plusers” (Olsen, 2010)

The term emerging most in the research literature is now
"Long Term English Learner"
or LTEL
Definitions
No clear answers…
Statistics
*In 2009 - 5 million English learners (EL) in US public schools and 10% of all K-12 students in the US
*This is almost double from a decade ago (National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition, 2011).
*This group is expected to grow to 25% by 2030
EL born here in the US -close to 75% of EL (Pandaya, McHugh, & Batalova, 2011)
Achievement- Making expected progress in English language proficiency or at-risk for academic difficulty/failure
Many EL do not catch up with English-speaking peer
s

(National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2015)
Research abounds on many aspects of educating EL (strategies, programs, assessments, interventions, etc)

There is very little research on Long Term English Learners. In most studies that include LTEL, this group was not the central focus

Researchers have not uncovered clear answers to the factors underlying LTEL status or solutions (Report by the Colorado Dept. of Education, 2009; Council of Great City Schools, 2009; Short & Fitzsimmons, 2007)
2005
What researchers have found
Investigated the effects of tracking at a CA high school-
Findings:
2% of EL took a sufficient number of classes required to be eligible for application to a 4-year university

A complexity of factors are involved in determining an EL’s academic success
Instructional quality mattered more than length of exposure to English
Examined the relationship between length of time in EL programs and social-emotional outcomes

Findings:
lower levels of social-emotional resiliency, ethnic pride, GPA, and academic behaviors for EL in the program for 5 years or more
-No clear definition of a Long Term EL

Most include EL students in US schools for 6-7 years that have not met English language proficiency

Most are found in upper elementary, middle school, or high school

This groups makes up
59%
of secondary EL students in California schools (Olsen, 2009)
California’s LTEL
Laurie Olsen (2010)- Reparable Harm
Data from 40 school districts throughout all regions of California (2009-10) regarding 175,734 secondary school students, almost 1/3 of all secondary school EL in the state

Fi
ndings: 5
9% of secondary EL in CA are LTEL

Definitions may vary across the state; only 1 in 4 districts formally identifies and provides services for this group

Multiple factors contribute to becoming a LTEL

A particular set of characteristics describes their overall profile
Characteristics of Typical LTEL
Drift away from the expected trajectory for English language development

Proficient in social talk (orally bilingual), but
struggle with literacy

Many get “stuck” at an intermediate level of English proficiency

Many develop habits of non-engagement, learned passivity, and invisibility in school

Most are 2-3 years below grade level with a GPA around 2.0

Vocabulary tends to be
general and imprecise

Many say they enjoy school and feel they are just being courteous and respectful

Most are optimistic and amazingly resilient, but they become
weary
and don’t feel like they belong in school

Many
want to attend college
, but don’t realize that the classes they take won’t prepare them for the university

Drift away from the expected trajectory for English language development
How are LTEL currently being served?
Most EL are placed in mainstream classes, but some teachers are not aware of them

Some get stuck in the “ESL” ghetto

Teachers are often unprepared to teach academic literacy

Schedules are filled up with English and ELD, interventions, electives, and support classes, most of which do not earn credits for college preparation
Recommendations
LA specialized English language development course for LTEL

Rigorous content classes with English proficient students taught using best practices for EL such as SDAIE strategies

Focus on literacy skills across the curriculum

Systems to identify and support LTEL

Training for teachers and administrators in the Common Core State Standards and the corresponding CA ELD Standards to support
rigorous content and opportunities to develop academic language through collaboration and critical thinking
Background Information
K-12 in California

2011-2012 – EL are 23% of the K-12 population numbering about 1.4 million

Spanish-speaking students are by far the largest group among EL (84%)

(California Department of Education, 2012)
Callahan,
What researchers have found
Castro-Olivo, Preciado, Sanford & Perry
2010

Research on LTEL
What researchers have found
Menken & Kleyn,
2010
Studied EL in NYC schools where 1/3 of EL are LTEL

F
indings:
I
nconsistent placement in “weak” bilingual programs or mainstream programs with little to no primary language support

Average of 3 years below grade level in reading and writing, cumulative grade average of D-

Some reported one or more years of retention, withdrawn behaviors, and lack of confidence in the classroom

Recommendations:
Consistent opportunities to develop L1 and L2
Explicit instruction in academic literacy across the curriculum
References

Callahan, R. M. (2005). Tracking and High School English Learners: Limiting Opportunity to Learn. American Educational Research Journal, 42(2), 305-328

California Department of Education, Data Quest (2012). “English Learner Students by Language by Grade, State of California, 2011-2012.” Retrieved from http://dq.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/ SpringData/StudentsByLanguage.aspx?Level=State&TheYear=2011-12&SubGroup=All &ShortYear=1112&GenderGroup=B&CDSCode=00000000000000&RecordType=EL

Castro-Olivo, S. M., Preciado, J. A., Sanford, A. K., & Perry, V. (2011). The academic and social-emotional needs of secondary Latino English learners: Implications for screening, identification, and instructional planning. Exceptionality, 19(3), 160-174. doi: 10.1080/09362835.2011.579846

Menken, K., & Kleyn, T. (2010). The long-term impact of subtractive schooling in the educational experiences of secondary English language learners. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13(4), 399-417. doi: 10.1080/13670050903370143

National Assessment of Educational Progress. (2011). The nation’s report card. Retrieved from http://nationsreportcard.gov/reading_2011/nat_g4.asp?tab_id=tab2&subtab_id=Tab_7#chart

Olsen, L. (2010). Reparable harm: Fulfilling the unkept promise of educational opportunity for California’s long term English learners. Long Beach, CA: Californians Together.

Pandya, C., McHugh, M. & Batalova, J. (2011). Limited English proficient individuals in the United States: Number, Share, Growth, and Linguistic Diversity. Washington, D. C.: Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.migrationinformation.org/integration/LEPdatabrief.pdf
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