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Transcript of Europe 1000CE-1450CE
Trouble was brewing, though as two religious leaders fought for ultimate control
Arguments occured over changes to the church's creeds, which type of bread to use for communinion (leavened or unleavened), and over the supremacy of Rome over Constantinople
Another major issue was cultural difference: Latin vs. Greek. Ritual vs. Conformity. Holy Wars Beginning in 1095, Christians from Europe embarked on a series of wars with the Levant (part of the Middle East- Eastern Mediterranean between Egypt and Turkey) to reclaim Jerusalem from the Seljuk Turkish Muslims who had taken it from the Byzantine Empires. Why did the Crusades REALLY happen? The Emperor of the Byzantine Empire, Alexius, asked for help from the papacy (pope) to end the invasions of the Seljuk Turk Muslims
The Pope saw this as an opportunity to regain control of the Eastern church, the Orthodox Church
Nobles in Europe saw this as an opportunity to gain power and wealth
The Italian city-states saw this as an opportunity to control Constantinople...and its wealthy trade Venice: A Powerful City-State Venice was founded by refugees fleeing the nomadic invasions of the Dark Ages
Its location on the Adriatic sea and its strong navy soon meant a nearly-invulnerable wealth-based "empire" and they began to expand to surrounding regions Center for Trade Venice soon became a center for trade between Western Europe (as they slowly revived trade) and the Byzantine and Islamic Empires Venice captures Constantinople In 1204, after the 4th Crusade, Venice captured and was able to hold and control Constantinople for 50 years.
Venice became incredibly wealthy thanks to the plundered goods that were brought from Constantinople
This period for Venice was known as the Latin Empire Effects of the Crusades Islamic learning and technology were spread from the Levant back to Western Europe
This learning included not only Muslim ideas, but also Indian (think Southernization) and Classic Greek Learning.
These ideas and technologies helped spur a rebirth of Western Europe
Weakening of the Byzantine Empire
Strengthening of Venice
Perhaps one of the most long-lasting results, though, was the distrust and dislike that grew between the Christian and Muslim Worlds Revival of Europe Beginning in the 800s, the climate of Europe had become warmer gradually
Major plagues that had continually broken out in Europe since the fall of Rome mostly disappeared by the 740s
Invasions of Vikings, Muslims, and Turks had slowed significantly
After so many centuries of trouble, things seemed to finally be looking up New Agricultural Revolution New methods of farming led to increased crop productions
3 Field System increased crop output
Crop rotation improved soil fertility
Like the Neolithic Revolution, Europe was able to reestablish a surplus of food
Surplus--> Specialization--> Trade--> Urbanization-->Guild Organization-->Hanseatic League What was the Hanseatic League? Hansa means guild in German
As trade began to revive in Europe, guilds of craftsmen and artisans formed to protect their own interests
Guilds controlled how many people could train for a specific job, i.e. blacksmithing, how much would be charged for services, and what type of work guild members would provide
The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederations of merchants in Northern Europe created in 1358
The Hanseatic League was created to protect the rights and priveleges of merchants as they visited different cities along the Northern trade route
The cities within the league had their own legal system and own armies for mutual protection and aid to the members All Good Things Must End... With increased agricultural output came increased population of Europe.
In the mid-1300s, the centuries-long warm spell began to end in Europe with an event known as the Little Ice Age (which would last until the mid-1800s)
Agricultural productivity declined and led to a Great Famine, which weakened the population of Europe Death Soon, a new horror would arrive; plague.
Arriving from somewhere is Southern China, plague traveled alongside the Mongols
It made its way to Constantinople by 1347, and eventually overtook much of Europe and its already weakened population.
Estimates of population loss vary from 30-60% of Europe's population Effects of the Plague Huge loss of life
Religious upsurge for many
War over new lands available after so many died (Hundred Years War)
Peasant revolts led to the weakening of feudalism
Cultural influence on art and literature