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APUSH (HIS42S) Founding a New Nation

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Melanie Gamache

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Transcript of APUSH (HIS42S) Founding a New Nation

APUSH (HIS42S): Founding a New Nation (Chpts 1-8)
Day 1: September 6
AP/University level American History
Day 2: September 10
USA geography quiz
Day 3: September 12, 2013
Lecture: Magna Carta
Day 4: September 16, 2013
Lecture: Puritans, Salem Hysteria
Course Outline/Schedule (including how this course will run)
AP Writing and Reading
Modern American Geography assignment. Quiz Sept 10.
Introduction to Primary Documents and Responses
"What is an American" DBQ assignment - due Sept. 12
American Indians and Europeans Lecture
Chapter 1 Discussion Questions
American Indians and Europeans
Both sides (Europeans and American Indians) saw "Otherness" in the opposing groups.
American Indians often were described as savages but many historical accounts describe these people as peaceful, friendly and with a well defined cultural and spiritual base.
They strive after a sincere honesty, hold strictly to their promises, cheat and injure no one. They willingly give shelter to others and are both useful and loyal to their guests. . . .

I once saw four of them take a meal together in hearty contentment, and eat a pumpkin cooked in clear water, without butter and spice. Their table and bench was the bare earth, their spoons were mussel-shells with which they dipped up the warm water, their plates were the leaves of the nearest tree, which they do not need to wash with painstaking after the meal, nor to keep with care of future use. I thought to myself, these savages have never in their lives heard the teaching of Jesus concerning temperance and contentment, yet they far excel the Christians in carrying it out.

-Francis Daniel Pastorius, Pennsylvania, 1700
The variety of environments in North America allowed different tribes with different living style to arise.
For example, tribes in Northern California had forests and streams therefore the tribes’ living style was built around it: collecting acorns and fishing.

Tribes near the ocean (Atlantic or Pacific) relied on seafood.

Tribes in mountains relied on herds of animals hence their culture was nomadic.

Other tribes that lived in fertile land with streams started farming.
Europeans ~1492
European society was based on social hierarchy-- organized according to rank.

Monarchs, nobles, artisans and merchants(has social mobility), peasants= majority of the people.

Merchants and Artisans: source of tax revenue; were needed to finance overseas exploration and expansion.

.
Family in Society

Nuclear family: family of parents and their children (instead of extended family, like the Native Americans)

Jobs within the household often divided by gender-- men did most of the field labor while women usually took care of children and made the food.
Christianity
Dominant religion - Roman Catholic Church; Pope had ultimate power.
Crusades:
Muslims had control over much of Asia and North Africa (slaves)
Spanish Christians conquered Muslims and took over territory.
Christian armies in W. Europe tried to force Muslims out of the Holy Land around Jerusalem (Crusades). Didn't go well.
As a result, trade increased and a desire for Asian goods.
Change in Church Authority
Failed crusades made people lose faith in the Pope.
Monarchs began to take over this power.
Reformation: Disagreements over church authority in early 1500s divided Christianity in western Europe between Catholicism and Protestantism.
Looking for religious freedom? = explore the world!
More Change
heavy rain, disease (crops and livestock)
Hundred Years' War (England vs. France)
After Crusades, more Asian trade routes (Muslim merchants controlled flow of goods through Middle East.)
Crusades weakened nobility but strengthened monarchies.
Monarchies looking to control everything (taxes, armies, gov't, exploration). Land = power = wealth.
Change in European Thinking
Superiority
Interest in the world and how it works (science, human achievements, adventure, discovery, conquest)
Sailing technology (compass and astrolabe)
The Reformation was a religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval.
Reformation, Counter-Reformation
Reformers like Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Henry VIII challenged authority and questioned the Catholic Church's ability to define Christian practice.
Reformers argued for religious and political redistribution of power - to pastors and princes.
These triggered wars, persecutions, and the Counter-Reformation.
Let's Discuss
In a small group, make some general statements about Europeans circa 1500.
How does this contextual knowledge provide an understanding of early explorers' mindsets and interactions when confronted with the native inhabitants?
Let's Consider This:
Why do we assume the continent was so sparsely populated? Talk with someone else.
Wanted to believe that it was unoccupied - less guilt.
Disease HAD changed the population through European contact.
Much of our history has a one-sided perspective and only lately are historians considering other Native American perspectives of European contact.
Societal Differences Between Native Americans and Europeans
Native American people were accustomed to meeting and trading with people who were linguistically and culturally different from themselves.
By 1000 AD, trade relationships had covered the continent for more than a thousand years (Mother of Pearl from Gulf of Mexico found in Manitoba. Lake Superior copper in Louisiana)
Native Americans inhabited a world in which, unlike Europeans, they expected to meet people different from themselves.
Magna Carta and US Constitution Assignment
Discussion: Chapter 2
Magna Carta
Magna Carta - "Great Charter", basically a guide book meant for people in power.
Four main themes of Magna Carta:
Rule of Law
Fairness of the law
Due process of law
Economic rights
Rule of Law
Powers and privileges of the King are clearly defined and limited.
Charter provides enforcement of restrictions placed on the King
Fairness of the Laws and Their Execution
"Reasonable" rules and regulations.
Equal justice under the law.
Recognition of customs, traditions, and established rights.
Restoration of property and fines if not justly taken.
Punishment in proportion to the crime.
Due Process of Law
Established procedures.
No trial without evidence/testimony to support accusations.
Reliance on local courts and magistrates.
Trials held in a timely manner.
Trials open to the public
Trial by a jury of one's peers.
Respect for Economic Rights
Right to property.
Fairness in economic transactions - standard weights and measures.
Reimbursement for and/or restoration of property.
Freedom for merchants to move in order to conduct business.
Magna Carta activity
Use the translated copy of Magna Carta and find examples of the four themes mentioned previously.
Day 5: September 18, 2013
John Dane's Narrative Discussion
Day 6: September 20, 2013
Lecture: Slavery in the Classroom
Day 7: September 24, 2013
Discuss Chapter 5 Questions
Day 8: September 26, 2013
Varying Viewpoints: Colonial America: Communities of Conflict or Consensus Discussion
Day 9: September 30, 2013
Lecture: Seven Years' War
Day 10: October 2, 2013
Road to Revolution
Day 11: October 4, 2013
Day 12: October 8, 2013
Day 13: October 10, 2013
Day 14: October 15, 2013
Read the essay, "The Rhetoric of Rights..." and use the questions to guide your reading. You will use your knowledge to help the class create a general statement for the last question.
John Dane's Narrative
Jamestown, Virginia
The defeat of the Spanish Armada and the exuberant spirit of Elizabethan nationalism brought about colonialism.
The first permanent English colony was established at Jamestown, Virginia.
Captain John Smith, one of the surviving colonists emerged as a prominent leader (ensuring the colony had food and shelter, sanitation and hygiene control).
Movement into Massachusetts
English towns expanded in Massachusetts in the 17th century.
Consider the symbols/items on this 1612 original map
These towns were a product, not of long continuous development, but instead, of a rapid process of town planning which was not constrained by existing physical structures and property lines of previous European settlement.
The tightly clustered settlements of large and small land holders living adjacent to one another were focused on the meetinghouse and maintained a high degree of internal social order and self-maintenance.

Attendance at religious worship and at town meetings was obligatory and enforced by town meeting. There was a strong sense of interdependency and community early on and on a daily basis.

The nucleated village, one of many forms present in England during the medieval period, is associated with attempts to reorganize and control agricultural production and to facilitate control over the village's population through an emphasis on ordered land use and face-to-face observation of each villager's daily activities. —Susan McGowan, "The Landscape in the Colonial Period
Puritans
The Puritans were a group of people who grew discontent in the Church of England and worked towards religious, moral and societal reforms.
They contended that The Church of England had become a product of political struggles and man-made doctrines.
Escaping persecution from church leadership and the King, they came to America
Puritan Beliefs
The Puritans believed that the Bible was God's true law, and that it provided a plan for living.
The Puritans believed that all people were totally depraved and could do nothing to save themselves from eternal damnation.
Only God, in His infinite and unknowable wisdom, determined whom He would save and whom He would damn for all eternity. And, once saved, no one could lose that salvation.
The Puritans also believed that only a few fortunate souls would be among the saved: the "elect.“
Puritan Life
Most of the Puritans settled in the New England area.
Religious exclusiveness was the foremost principle of their society. The spiritual beliefs that they held were strong.
This strength held over to include community laws and customs.
Since God was at the forefront of their minds, He was to motivate all of their actions. This premise worked both for them and against them.
The common unity strengthened the community.
In a foreign land surrounded with the hardships of pioneer life, their spiritual bond made them sympathetic to each other's needs.
Their overall survival techniques permeated the colonies and on the whole made them more successful in several areas beyond that of the colonies established to their south.
Puritan Theology
Each church congregation was to be individually responsible to God, as was each person.
The New Testament was their model and their devotion so great that it permeated their entire society.
People of opposing theological views were asked to leave the community or to be converted.
Their interpretation of scriptures was a harsh one. They emphasized a redemptive piety. In principle, they emphasized conversion and not repression.
Conversion was a rejection of the "worldliness" of society and a strict adherence to Biblical principles.
Puritan Theology continued...
While repression was not encouraged in principle, it was evident in their actions. God could forgive anything, but man could forgive only by seeing a change in behavior.
Actions spoke louder than words, so actions had to be constantly controlled.
The doctrine of predestination kept all Puritans constantly working to do good in this life to be chosen for the next eternal one.
The devil was behind every evil deed.
Constant watch needed to be kept in order to stay away from his clutches. Words of hell fire and brimstone flowed from the mouths of eloquent ministers as they warned of the persuasiveness of the devil's power.
Great pains were taken to warn their members and especially their children of the dangers of the world.
Religiously motivated, they were exceptional in their time for their interest in the education of their children.
Reading of the Bible was necessary to living a pious life.
The education of the next generation was important to further "purify" the church and perfect social living.
Three English diversions were banned in their New England colonies; drama, religious music and erotic poetry.
The first and last of these led to immorality. Music in worship created a "dreamy" state which was not conducive in listening to God.
Since the people were not spending their time idly indulged in trivialities, they were left with only godly diversions.
Puritan Firsts
For the first time in history, free schooling was offered for all children.
Puritans formed the first formal school in 1635, called the Roxbury Latin School. Four years later, the first American College was established; Harvard in Cambridge.
Children attended a "Dame school" where the teacher, who was usually a widow, taught reading.
"Ciphering" (math) and writing were low on the academic agenda.
More Firsts...
In 1638, the first printing press arrived.
By 1700, Boston became the second largest publishing center of the English Empire.
The Puritans were the first to write books for children, and to discuss the difficulties in communicating with them.
At a time when other Americans were physically blazing trails through the forests, the Puritans efforts in areas of study were advancing our country intellectually.
John Dane's Narrative
Read the first five paragraphs of John Dane's Narrative, until you reach the following passage:

"Then said my mother, " go where you will, God he will find you out." This word, the point of it, stuck in my breast; and afterwards God struck it home to its head.“
Answer the discussion questions for John Dane's Narrative
Salem Witch Hysteria
As a class, create a list of reasons for why you think the Salem Witch Trials might have happened.
View the document “Causes for the Outbreak of Witchcraft Hysteria in Salem” and decide which causes are valid and those which are not
Chapter 3 Discussion Questions
Varying Viewpoints:: Europeanizing America or Americanizing Europe?
Varying Viewpoints Free Response
Discuss the reading with someone else - what's being said? How is this perspective "varying"? What are the key comparisons?
Answer the question:
Using quality evidence, determine if America was Europeanized or was Europe Americanized?
Due Sept 20.
*This isn't an emphasis on your opinion. This is a formal evaluation of evidence presented by the authors of the textbook and the views presented in this section.
Review the AP writing scoring guide.
Chapter 4 Questions Discussion
DBQ - Bacon's Rebellion
Slavery in the Colonies
Slavery had virtually disappeared in Western Europe by the 1500s and it looked to be dying where it existed.
Only Spain and Portugal still practiced slavery and in a turn of irony, these were the two countries that led the colonizing effort in the Americas, almost ensuring that slavery would be transported from Europe to the New World.
In The New World
Between the 1500s and the 1800s, about 10 million Africans were captured and carried to the New World.
It is estimated that about 1.5 million died en route.
Most of these slaves were bound for Central and South America. Only 400,000 Africans were sent to the British colonies in North America.
The Beginnings
Slavery began in West Africa, and slaves were traded with Muslims and Portuguese – a profitable business.
In Africa, slavery was not necessarily heritable or permanent. It was not based on race, but rather war or tribal conflict.
The depopulation of American Indians encouraged the Portuguese and Spaniards to use the already familiar system of African slavery to meet their labor needs.
Between 1500 and 1620, Europeans brought at least half a million slaves to the New World from Africa, an enslavement based on race.
Enslavement and Race
Slavery in Colonial North America
In the early seventeenth century, tobacco, the first cash crop in North America, had yet to embrace slavery, but slavery had developed a strong foothold in England’s most southern colonial holdings in the Caribbean.  
Between 1624 and 1641, the English had settled seventeen islands and, while some of these settlements died, others became economic powerhouses, most notably Barbados, St. Kitts, Antigua, Nevis, and Montserrat.
These West Indian islands survived on sugar, which they grew in great abundance and shipped back to England.
Slavery cont'd...
The production of sugar for export was backbreaking work, and planters who originally relied on servants soon turned to African slaves whom they purchased from Dutch traders.
By 1660, the West Indies populations had more enslaved Africans than whites, and a series of slave codes severely limited the rights of slaves.  
For example, laws in the West Indies required that slaves be held in bondage for life. 
At least half of all children born into slavery in the West Indies died before the age of five, and slaves imported directly from Africa rarely lived more than ten years.
Slavery first came to the North American colonies in 1619 when John Rolfe of Jamestown purchased black laborers from a Dutch trader. 
The word slave was not yet applied to black laborers, as it was in the West Indies. 
There were no slave codes, and courts were unsure how to treat blacks who sued whites in court.  
Skin color had, throughout the first decades of the existence of slavery in the colonies, yet to determine slave status.  
But this ambiguity changed slowly between 1640 and 1680 due to several factors.
Indentured Servants
The growth of tobacco, rice, and indigo and the plantation economy created a tremendous need for labor in Southern English America.
Without the aid of modern machinery, human sweat and blood was necessary for the planting, cultivation, and harvesting of these cash crops.
Indentured servitude provided incentives for both the master and servant to increase the working population of the Chesapeake colonies.
Virginia and Maryland operated under what was known as the "headright system."
Indentured Servitude...
The leaders of each colony knew that labor was essential for economic survival, so they provided incentives for planters to import workers.
For each laborer brought across the Atlantic, the master was rewarded with 50 acres of land.
This system was used by wealthy plantation aristocrats to increase their land holdings dramatically.
In addition, of course, they received the services of the workers for the duration of the indenture.
Indentured Servitude...
This system seemed to benefit the servant as well.
Each indentured servant would have their fare across the Atlantic paid in full by their master. A contract was written that stipulated the length of service — typically five years.
The servant would be supplied room and board while working in the master's fields. Upon completion of the contract, the servant would receive "freedom dues," a pre-arranged termination bonus.
This might include land, money, a gun, clothes or food. On the surface it seemed like a terrific way for the luckless English poor to make their way to prosperity in a new land.
Beneath the surface, this was not often the case...
Only about 40 percent of indentured servants lived to complete the terms of their contracts.
Female servants were often the subject of harassment from their masters.
A woman who became pregnant while a servant often had years tacked on to the end of her service time.
Early in the century, some servants were able to gain their own land as free men. But by 1660, much of the best land was claimed by the large land owners.
The former servants were pushed westward, where the mountainous land was less arable and the threat from Indians constant.
A class of angry, impoverished pioneer farmers began to emerge at the end of the 1600s.
Advantages and Disadvantages to Slaves and Servants
For most of the 1600s, the planters tried to get by with a predominantly white, but multiracial workforce.
As the 17th century wore on, colonial leaders became increasingly frustrated with white servant labor.
For one thing, they faced the problem of constantly having to recruit labor as servants’ terms expired. Second, after servants finished their contracts and decided to set up their farms, they could become competitors to their former masters.
And finally, the planters didn’t like the servants’ “insolence.”
Black slaves worked on plantations in small numbers throughout the 1600s.
Until the end of the 1600s, it cost planters more to buy slaves than to buy white servants.
Blacks lived in the colonies in a variety of statuses—some were free, some were slaves, some were servants.
The law in Virginia didn’t establish the condition of lifetime, perpetual slavery or even recognize African servants as a group different from white servants until 1661.
The planters’ economic calculations played a part in the colonies’ decision to move towards full-scale slave labor.
By the end of the 17th century, the price of white indentured servants outstripped the price of African slaves.
A planter could buy an African slave for life for the same price that he could purchase a white servant for ten years. As Eric Williams explained:
Here, then, is the origin of Negro slavery. The reason was economic, not racial; it had to do not with the color of the laborer, but the cheapness of the labor. [The planter] would have gone to the moon, if necessary, for labor. Africa was nearer than the moon, nearer too than the more populous countries of India and China. But their turn would soon come.
Planters’ fear of a multiracial uprising also pushed them towards racial slavery.
Because a rigid racial division of labor didn’t exist in the 17th century colonies, many conspiracies involving Black slaves, servants, and white indentured servants were hatched and foiled.
We know about them today because of court proceedings that punished the runaways after their capture.
As historians T.H. Breen and Stephen Innes point out, “These cases reveal only extreme actions, desperate attempts to escape, but for every group of runaways who came before the courts there were doubtless many more poor whites and blacks who cooperated in smaller, less daring ways on the plantation.”
Bacon's Rebellion
Read and discuss Bacon's Rebellion
Indentured Servitude in the Chesapeake
Read and discuss the case study.
Lecture: The Great Awakening
The Great Awakening DBQ Assignment
The First Great Awakening
The Great Awakening was a period of great revivalism that spread throughout the colonies in the 1730s and 1740s.
It de-emphasized the importance of church doctrine and instead put a greater importance on the individual and their spiritual experience.
At a time when man in Europe and the American colonies were questioning the role of the individual in religion and society.
Same time as the Enlightenment which emphasized logic and reason and stressed the power of the individual to understand the universe based on scientific laws.
Jonathan Edwards
Read page 3 of The First Great Awakening, highlighting important background information.
Summarize the information in a few sentences or jot notes.*
Evangelical preacher (first), harbinger of the Awakening, very effective, theologian, died of smallpox in 1758, just after becoming president of Princeton.
Read page 4-5 of The First Great Awakening, which is Edwards’s sermon “Sinner in the Hands of an Angry God,”
Discuss questions together.
The Great Awakening DBQ Assignment
The Great Awakening DBQ Assignment
Varying Viewpoints (p.104-105)
Discuss with someone else, the views written in this piece. Choose one aspect you'd like to share with the rest of the class. This can be something you agree with, disagree with, something you have further knowledge on, etc. Feel free to check other sources to support your claims.
Crash Course Video and assignment
Chapter 6 questions: discussion
The Seven Years' War
Started in Europe (small wars) that largely involved Spain, Britain, and France.
North American colonies existed while being controlled by these three powers, but not always peacefully. Remember land=power and wealth.
Seven Years' War is also known as the French and Indian war, fought in North America to determine who would become the stronger power in North America: Britain or France.
Bother relied on colonists and Indian allies to fight.
France vs. Britain
The French typically had a stronger ally with the Indians and when it came to fight, but many colonists in New France (Protestant) didn't support the Roman Catholic Church and resettled in British colonies.
The French and Indian War really sparked when a french trading fort (Fort Duquesne) was claimed by the British as being on their land. The French refused to leave.
The French used unfamiliar war tactics (camouflage, surprise attacks) that the British weren't prepared for and won the battle of Fort Duquesne despite being outnumbered.
French vs. British
Many French/English battles took place, specifically around lakes and waterways - control supplies coming from the Motherland.
French - led by Marquis de Montcalm seemed to be holding out well with France's support and that of their Indian allies.
Defeat when the British conquered the French on the Plains of Abraham. As a result, French were largely expelled from North America.
Effects of the French and Indian War
Great expansion of British territorial claims in the New World.
Britain's debt enlarged.
Resentment towards colonists from Motherland (not enough financial and military help)
British leaders wanted central authority to be in London.
For the British:
For the colonies:
Conflict united the colonies as a force Britain should think about (prior, general distrust among colonies)
Infuriated by Britain's Sugar Act and Stamp Act as well as prohibited settlement west of the Alleghenny mountains - they wanted the West!
For the American Indians:
British victory was disastrous for the Indians of the Ohio Valley.
French allies were enemies of Britain.
Iroquois Confederacy (supported English) weren't treated very well when it came to land settlements and their Confederacy began to crumble meaning they couldn't effectively negotiate with Britain.
Crash Course Seven Years War
Road to Revolution Assignment
Term Paper Options
Full transcript