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Science 9 - Introduction to Cancer and a Cancer Inquiry Activity

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Miss Miles

on 17 March 2013

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Transcript of Science 9 - Introduction to Cancer and a Cancer Inquiry Activity

March 12, 2013 Cancer Normally, a cell’s __________ controls the cell cycle and ensures that cells reproduce only as needed. It also makes sure that cells die if they are damaged and as they age.

Cell division is a complicated process and sometimes errors occur in DNA duplication. There are ______________ in the cell cycle that help detect these duplication errors and when a duplication error is encountered, the cell destroys itself.

If the section of DNA that controls cell death or the cell cycle is damaged, then cells can divide uncontrollably and create a clump of cells known as a _____________. Cancer is the disease in which uncontrolled cell division creates a tumor. Cancer and the Cell Division • There are two main types of tumours:
1] _____________________ 2] _____________________

Benign tumours may grow quickly and physically crowd the surrounding cells or organs, but otherwise do not cause any damage. Benign tumours do not spread throughout the body and are considered non-cancerous.

Malignant tumours can grow quickly and can ___________________ and _________________ surrounding cells and organs by interrupting their normal function. Cells from malignant tumors can separate from the main tumour, travel through the bloodstream, spread throughout the body and start growing a new tumour. For this reason, malignant tumours are very dangerous and are considered cancerous. Major Tumour Types Research has shown that in some cases, cancer is simply caused by errors in DNA replication. In other cases, cancer is caused after an organism was exposed to certain harmful environmental factors. Chemicals and toxins that can damage DNA in cells and cause cancer are known as ____________________. Causes of Cancer • Treating cancer is difficult because _______________________________________________Most treatments that kill cancer cells also kill healthy cells, causing the organism with cancer to feel tired and ill.

• With each treatment available there are risks and benefits. When choosing a type of treatment for their patient, a doctor will weigh the risks and benefits of different treatments before they decide on their course of action. Cancer Treatment • Surgical removal of the tumour is one treatment option that patients have. For which type of tumour would this treatment benefit most? __________

• ___________________ is also an option for patients and is a combination of drugs that are taken orally or injected into the body to kill fast-growing cells. The death of healthy cells is what causes a cancer patient’s hair to fall out (hair-making cells are one of the first types of healthy cells to respond to chemotherapy because they grow quickly).

• Radiation therapy is another way to treat cancer and involves the use of ____________________________ to damage cancer cells and prevent them from reproducing. Radiation can also damage healthy cells so to minimize this risk, radiation beams are carefully aimed at the tumour. Different Types of Cancer Treatment • Once you have logged into a laptop go onto Safari and enter the following website: www.cancer.ca ; Click Canada-wide and then ABOUT CANCER. Use the dropdown menu to select the type of cancer you are researching.The tabs on the right side of the page will help you answer the following questions: Inquire Into Cancer DNA checkpoints tumor malignant benign invade damage Note that although malignant tumours are considered more dangerous than benign tumours, both can interfere with the normal functioning of our body system which is dangerous because body systems all work together to ensure the overall health of an organism carcinogens cancer cells and healthy cells are very similar benign Chemotherapy radiation energy On a sheet of loose leaf you will want to record the following:
A brief 1-2 sentence definition of the type of cancer (try to put this in your own words rather than copying straight from the website!)
Three of the risk factors associated with this type of cancer.
Some of the major signs and symptoms of this type of cancer.
How this type of cancer is treated. 1 2 3 4
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