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Text Types and Functions
Transcript of Text Types and Functions
to Translation Katharina Reiss Text type: “a conceptual framework which enables us to classify texts in terms of communicative intentions serving an overall rhetorical purpose.” Karl Bühler 3 functions:
1. Informative function (Darstellungsfunktion)
2. Expressive function (Ausdrucksfunction)
3. Appellative function (Appellfunktion) 1. INFORMATIVE TEXT TYPE:
'Plain communication of facts' 2. EXPRESSIVE TEXT TYPE:
- Expressive function
- Aesthetic language dimension
- Text focused on form
- TT should transmit aesthetic form
- ‘identifying’ method, adopt perspective of ST author 3. OPERATIVE TEXT TYPE:
'Inducing behavioural responses'
- Appellative function
- Dialogic language dimension
- Appellative focus
- TT should elicit desire response
- Translation method should be ‘adaptive’, equivalent effect 4. AUDIO-MEDIAL TEXTS
(added by Reiss)
- Films and visual and spoken advertisements which supplement the other 3 functions with visual images, music etc. Skopos Theory Intralinguistic & Extralinguistic
Instruction Criteria: 1. Linguistic components:
- Semantic equivalence
- Lexical equivalence
- Grammatical and stylistic features
- Subject field
- Place (characteristics of country and culture)
- 'Affective implications’ (humour, irony, emotion, etc.) 'Each text is produced for a given purpose and should serve this purpose. The Skopos rule thus reads as follows: translate in a way that enables your text/translation to function in the situation in which it is used and with the people who want to use it and precisely in the way they want it to function. (1989a:20) Vermeer Nord 1. ‘Being culture-bound linguistic signs, both the source text and the target text are determined by the communicative situation in which they serve to convey a message.’ 2. ‘The function of the target text is not arrived or automatically from an analysis of the source text, but is pragmatically defined by the purpose of the intercultural communication.’ 3. 'The translator is not the sender of ST (source-text) message but a text producer in the target culture who adopts somebody else’s intention in order to produce a communicative instrument for the target culture, or a target-culture document of a source-culture communication.’ Documentary translation:
•Document of a source culture communication between the author and the ST recipient.
•An independent, message transmitting instrument in a new communicative action in the target culture. What does Nord propose? The importance of the translation commission
Comparison between the ST and TT profiles to see where they diverge.
The commission should give:
a)The intended text functions
c) time and place of text reception
d) the medium (speech/writing/online/hard copy)
e) motive – why the ST was written and why it’s being translated. The role of ST analysis
ST analysis to decide on
a) the feasibility of translation
b) the most relevant ST items
c) translation strategy to fulfil brief
Suprasegmental features The functional hierarchy of translation problems
a)Comparison of the intended functions of the ST and the proposed TT help to decide the functional type of translation to be produced.
b)Analysis of the translation commission determines which functional elements to reproduce and which to adapt.
c)Translation type helps decide translation style.
d)Problems of the text can then be tackled at a lower linguistic level. Conclusion
•The translation commission analysis incorporates Holz-Mänttäri’s work
•The intended text functions pursue Reiss and Vermeer’s concept of Skopos.
•The ST analysis, influenced by Reiss’s work, gives due attention to the communicative function and genre features of the ST type. Genre 1. Literary genre
e.g poetry, fiction, drama
2. Religious genre
e.g biblical texts
3. Philosophical genre
e.g maths, theological essays
4. Emperical genre
e.g scientific, technological, scholoarly texts
5. Persuasive genre
e.g instruction manuals, laws, rules and regulations, propaganda and advertising. Hybridization Hybridization is when a text contains a variety of genres, it may be predominantly typical of one genre but also have features of other genres.
For example, sermons, parody, job contracts. Issues with cultural features in translation. The process Exoticism It imports linguistic and cultural features into the TL from the SL, with minimal adaptation so the TT signals the source culture and its strangeness.
This in itself may be an attraction. Cultural Borrowing It is the transferal of a culturally-alien ST expression into TT or its introduction in a minimally modified form.
It is often used when it proves impossible to find suitable expression, such as an established borrowing, in the TL.
For example guerrilla, bourgeois, raison d'être, joie de vivre, savoir-faire, matador, schnapps, totem, rodeo, bonanza, chiaroscuro, andante sostenuto, pizza, kindergarten. Communicative Translation Communicative translation is often mandatory for culturally conventional formulae.
This is particularly true where a literal ST expression is inappropriate.
English: One swallow doesn't make a summer
French:Une hirondelle ne fait pas le printemps
Spanish:Una golondrina no hace verano. Calque Calque respects SL syntax, but has the disadvantage of often being unidiomatic in TL.
Where calque is unsuccessful it is extremely unidiomatic, and can cause unwanted humour.
E.g menus and instruction manuals.
The following example comes for an Avianca airlines brochure (the spelling was also in the TT):
Very sure you have read One Hundred Years of Solitude, that famus novel by the Colombian García Márquez, where girls fly and the deads keep up tied to the trees or stroll throgh the old mansions. What do you think of the translation type?
Do you think it maintains its poetic, nursery rhyme form?
Do you think that the translator should ‘document’ the text’s foreignness or adapt it to target-culture conditions? Why? A TT must be coherent with the ST A TT is determined by its skopos A TT is an offer of information in a target culture and target language concerning an offer of information in a source culture and SL. A TT does not initiate an offer of information in a clearly reversible way – the function of a TT in its target culture is not necessarily the same as the ST in the source culture A TT must be internally coherent Criteria for
text typology Field of discourse:
e.g. 'journalistic' 'scientific'
'religious' 'political' Function:
e.g. 'literary' 'poetic'
'didactic' - Informative function
- Logical language dimension
- Text focused on content - TT should transmit referential content
- Translation method should be ‘plain prose’ The process of text typology The knowledge and experience
of the translator Requirements pertaining to
particular text types Multi- functionality or
hybridization Text type: “a conceptual framework which enables us to classify texts in terms of communicative intentions serving an overall rhetorical purpose.” “It is a recognised text convention governing the field of discourse of news reporting/ investigative journalism in French that a concept referred to in a noun phrase will not be expressed in the same way twice running in a text. So le dollar américan will, in a subsequent lexicalisation, become le billet vert etc.”